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75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
d/ (40 fx of URINARY SYSTEM?
1 - excretion
2 - regulation of H2O and electrolytes
3 - regulation of blood Ph
4 - regulation of BP
How big are kidneys?
4" long by 2-3" wide
Name (3) layers/capsules of kidney?
1 - renal capsule (attach to visceral lining of kidney
2 - adipose (fat layer for protection
3 0 renal fascia (hold kidney against posterior wall
kidney come loose from wall, problem with renal fascia layer
Carries urine to bladder
Lenth of ureter?
What kind of muscle tissue in ureter and what fx does it carry?
Circulatory and long (as in stomach). Fx is peristalsis to move urine fr kidney
Bladder is a _______ muscular sac lined with 2 __________ epithelial cells (btwn squamous and epithelium).
Hold urine, aid in micturation. Collapsible, transitional
Fx of rugae in bladder
allow for expansion
d/ TRIGONE region of bladder
Imaginary trangle shaped landmark btwn to ureter holes and urethra hole.
How much does bladder hold normally and at what void is urge to void felt?
700-800cc, 200cc
singular muscular duct to outside of body
d/ CORTEX region of kidney? What (3) things are housed here
Outer portion of kidney. Has renal corpuscles, renal tubules, and blood vessels
d/ RENAL CORPUSCLE (Bowmans Capsule)?
consist of glomerulus and glomerular capsule
d/ how blood gets filtered in GLOMERULUS?
Blood is filtered b/c of high pressure, this is b/c insertion point is much larger than exit point of urine
How would high BP stress the glomerulus?
b/c pressure is normally high in glomerulus and cant afford any increase in pressure
Everything is filtered from the glomerulus except for ___, ___, _______ b/c these molecules are too ____?
RBC, WBC, and protein. Big
If RBC, WBC, or protein are found in the urine this is _________ and means there is a problem with _________ ?
abnormal, filtration
The MEDULLA consist of what(5) parts?
1 - Loop of Henle
2 - Collecting Tubules
3 - Blood Vessels
4 - Renal Pyramids
5 - Maj and Minor Calyces (calyx)
Describe the pathway of the filtrate in the kidney? Also describe which region of kidney these are (cortex or medulla)?
1 - Capsule (cortex)
2 - Proximal Convoluted Tubule (cortex)
3 - Loop of Henle Start in cortex, mostly in medulla)
4 - Distal convoluted tubule (cortex)
5 - Collecting Duct (medulla)
6 - Minor Calyx (little room)
7 - major calyx (big room)
8 - Renal pelvis -
9 - Ureter
The Collecting Ducts (many grouped together) are also called _________ b/c of their resemblance?
renal pyramid
NEPHRON contain what (2) portions of kidney?
Corpuscle and tubule
how many nephrons are there in each kidney?
How much of our kidneys is it possible to live with?
1/2 of 1 kidney
_________ Nephrons connect to 1 collecting duct.
The GLOMERULAR CAPSULE (Bowmans) consist of (2) layers?
the parietal (cover inside, ) and the visceal layer (cover the glomerulus)
What type of tissue on the parietal of the glomerular capsule?
parietal is simple squamous and scalelike
Glomerular capsule contain ______ ?
Fx of Podocytes?
Wrap around the capillary to keep it from bursting (b/c of the incr pressure) and the water is filtered in btn the podococytes
How will dehydration effect the endothelial pores?
Fluid will be more viscous which wear down the endothelium and eventually will allow bigger stuff to come thru, similar to a broken screen.
Blood enter the kidney thru the _______ ?
Renal Artery
Afferent take blood to the glomerulus and these are wider.

Efferent Take filtered blood from the glomerulus are narrower and have higher pressure.
pulls back into blood the things we dont want to lose
Endothelium of glomeruli allows all but but _____ ______ & ______ _______ to be filtered out?
large proteins and formed elements
What is normal glomerular pressure?
65 mm/Hg
What is normal capillary bed pressure?
35 mm/Hg
EFP = glomerular hydrostatic pressure 60 - (capsular hydrostatic pressure 30 + blood osmotic pressure 20)
d/ formed elements
Capsular Hydrostatic pressure and blod osmotic pressure are (In or Out) pressures
Both in pressure
Pressure against the capsular wall. As stuff collects in the capsule it gives a little pressure back
If one solution inside cell mebrane is hypertonic and solution outside cell membrane is hypotonic then it pulls water in by osmosis to attain isotonicity
Any kind of small blockage IE kidney stone will cause the ______ ________ _________ to go up and affect the EVP
capsular hydrostatic pressure
If Glomerular hydrostatic pressure (BP) goes up will have ____ filtration if it goes ____ b/c of low BP you will have less fitration
high, low
d/ TUBULAR REABSORPTION in peritubular capillaries

good stuff gets pulled back out from filtrate and back into blood. Water and solutes must first be reabsorbed into tubule cells then into capillaries

Na, CL, glucose, water
What (3) ways do peritubular capillaries selectivly absorb materials?
1 - active transport
2 - osmosis
3 - diffusion
d/ active transport and what particles get moved in back into blood from tubules.
Mvmt from area of high to low concentration.
Glucose, AA, Na Cl, and Sm Proteins
d/ OSMOSIS which takes stuff from filtrate into tubules
diffusion of water which follows Na+ and Cl- (by active transport)
d/ OBLIGATORY REABSORBTION and where does this occur and what %?
80% of water that is reabsorbed in proximal tubules
d/ FACULTATIVE REABSORBTION and where does this occur and what %?
20% of water is reabsorbed in distal tubules
How much water does kidney filter per day?
45 gal/day
How much fluid doe we lose per day?
2 L/day
What hormones (and what fluctuations) controls FACULTATIVE REABSORPTION?
ADH (anti diuretic hormone) and Aldosterone. These hormones respond to fluctuating factors like IE amt of fluids taken in and temp outside etc.
d/ ADH, where secreted from and fx in reabsorption
Secreted by pituitary gland. increases water absorptions in the distal tubules. Responds to low fluid levels from not drinking enough
d/ ALDOSTERONE, where it secreted from, and fx in reabsorption
Secreted by Adrenal Cortex and helps to regulate BP
d/ process of BP regulation by kidney?
drop in BP thn sensed by kidney (
Facultative reabsorbtion is controlled by what (2) hormones?
ADH and aldosterone
Fx of ADH? Where made?
Anti Diuretic Hormone. Made by pituitary. increases water reabsorb in the distal tubules
Fx of Aldosterone and BP regaulation mechanism? Where made?
Secteted by Adrenal Cortex. Incr Na and water reabsorbtion
Where are juxtaglomerular cells?
Distal Tubules
Drop in BP sensed by kidney (juxtaglomerular cells) THN JG cells sectrete Renin THN Renin stimul (1) Angiotensinogen to angiotensin 1 to angiotensin 2 (in lungs) THF strong vasoconstriction on incr BP (2cd) Renin stimulates release of Aldosterone (incr Na and Water reabsorbtion) and incr BP
Opposite of tubular reabsorbtion. When substances are secreted fr blood thru tubules to become urine
What is given off in TUBULAR SECRETION?
1 - drugs IE PCN

2 - Ions K, H, NH4 (ammonia)
What is fx of giving off H+ ions in tubular reabsorbtion
H ions are what makes body acid, so body throws out H to control blood pH.
What % of urine is water and solutes
95% water and 5% solutes
d/ normal color of urine and where does the color come from?
transparent amber color, from urochrome in bile
d/ normal pH of urine?
4.8 - 8.0
d/ (6) normal contents of urine?
1 - urea
2 - uric acid
3 - creatine
4 - electrolytes
5 - toxins
6 - hormones
d/ (5) abnormal contents of urine?
1 - glucose
2 - albumin
3 - pus
4 - blood
5 - stones
d/ what UREA in urine is from and what % is found?
60-90%, from the deammination of protein which produces ammonia thn urea
d/ what URIC ACID in urine is?
from the breakdown of nucleic acids
buildup of uric acid crystals accumulating in blood and eventually in the feet
d/ CREATINE in urine
from creatine produced in from muscular contractions
What ELECTROLYTES are in urine?
Na, K, CL, HCO3
Glucose in urine would indic _____ ?
Protein in urine could indic _____ ?
Problem in kidney