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72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
All chemical reactions in the body
d/ Destroys e/ Cellular respiration
d/ Synthesis or putting things together
Should metabolism all be occuring at the same time?
Amt of heat(NRG)released in a given amt of time as a result of catabolism of glucose.
d/ 1 calorie (c)?
the amt of heat needed to increase temp 1 ml of H2O 1 centigrade
d/ 1 Calorie (C)?
kCal=1000 (little)calories or amount of heat needed to raise temp of 1 liter of H2O
d/ Way to see how much NRG is given off e/ measurement of either heat produced or heat transferred from an animal to the environment. This method is technically difficult and clinically impractical.
Cellular respiration: Glucose + o2 yields what?
Co2 + h2o + NRG
Method of measuring energy expenditure or metabolic rate
Caloric burn rate is calculated from a measurement of oxygen uptake
What (5) things influences our METABOLIC RATE?
1 Exercise - direct 2 Body Temp - direct 3 Eating - direct 4 Age - direct 5 Hormone Bal (thyroid) - direct 6 Gender men have higher metabolic rate than woman
How long does exercise affect your metabolic rate?
For the whole day
What is BMR?
Metabolic rate that is measured under very specific parameters
What specific parameters are required when measuring BMR?
Client must be: Awake
Factors that influence BMR?
d/e Homeostasis of body temperature?
constant body temperature
d/ Constant body tempurature(37'c) humans e/ birds (101'f)
d/ Variable body termpurature e/ Reptiles
Homeostasis of body tempurature depends on what (2) processes?
d/ THERMOGENESIS? What it is a product of?
Heat production. Catabolism of glucose (cell respiration)
What % of thermogenesis (catabolism) come from muscles cells?
What % of thermogenesis (catabolism) come from other processes?
heat loss
What (5) ways do we lose heat (thermolysis)?
1 Resp system 2 Digestion 3 Urinary 4 Skin
What % of heat do we lose from the skin?
What (4) ways do we lose heat?
1 radiation 2 Evaporation 3 Conduction 4 Convection
d/ RADIATION? What % is lost this way?
transe of heat from one body to another w/o contact 60%
d/ EVAPORATION? What % is lost this way?
perspiration 22%
d/ CONDUCTION? What % is lost this way?
txfer of heat to cooler surfaces that you are touching 3%
More humid the air is (less or more) evaporation is going to occur?
d/ CONVECTION? What % is lost this way?
when cooler air comes in contact with skin then rises while taking heat with it 16%
Where is the THERMOSTATIC CONTROL CENTER in our body?
Hypothalamus and the Pre-Optic Center
How does HYPOTHALAMUS and PRE-OPTIC CENTER affect thermostatic control?
In the hypothalamus there is the pre-optic center hich is sensative to blood tempurature changes
How does pre-optic center of Hypothalamus fx and affect HEAT LOSING or HEAT GENERATING Center?
depending on blood tempurature change
What are (3) themostatic centers of Hypothalamus?
1 Pre optice 2 Heat generating 3 Heat Losing
What are (2) heat dissapating/losing methods dictated by the heat losing center of the hypothalamus?
1 Sweat gland stimulation (to release more h2o to coll skin) 2 Dilate arteries & arterioles in skin.
How is dilation of arterioles like a car radiator in cooling the blood?
Like radiator in that it as capillarie dilate more blood is circulating at the surface of the skin
What are (4) HEAT GENERATING methods of the dictated by the hypothalamus?
1 inhibit sweat gland 2 Constrict vessels 3 Shiver 4 Hypothalamus
How does SHIVERING produce heat?
muscles contract to produce heat
3 steps that cause Hypothalamus produce heat?
1 hypothalamus secrete TRF (thyroid release factor) 2 thn PITUITARY or HYPOPHESIS secret TSH (thyroid stimulting hormone) 3 thn THYROID release T3 and t4 (which incr metabolism/cell respiration/catabolism/heat)
What are skin thermoreceptors? Are these tied to internal temp control?
Receptors in skin which tell you what external temp is? No
What (2) populus have least efficient tempurature regulation?
Infants and Elderly
In Carbohydrate metabolism; 1 gm of Glucose = ______ Calories of NRG
What are the 3 monosacharides?
All carbohydrates are converted to ______ in the ______.
What 3 proceses regarding Carbohydrate metabolism occur in the liver?
Production of Glycogen which is the stored form of glucose
Produce glucose from fat or protein
break down glycogen
What are the (5) steps of cellular respiration?
1 phosphorilation of glucose 2 glycolysis 3 conversion of pyruvic acid 4 Krebs cycle 5 Electron Transport
What does the body use carbs for?
For NRG to power cellular processes
Excess glucose that cannot be stored as glycogen is converted to what?
The amount of potential NRG a food contains can be expressed as _____________?
How many calories are yeilded from cellular oxidation of a carbohydrate?
What is basal metabolic rate?
the rate at whic the body expends NRG under resting conditions.
The BMR indicates ___________________?
the total amt of NRG expended in a given time period to support the activities of such organs as the heart
What is RIBOFLAVIN (Vit B2) used for?
Part of enzymes and coenzymes such as FAD
What is NIACIN used for?
Part of Coenzyme NAD and NADP needed for oxidation of glucose and synthesis of proteins
Where does cellular respiration occur?
d/ REDUCTION of an electron molecule?
Gain of an electron and yeilds and increase in NRG
d/ OXIDATION of an electron?
Loss of an electron and yeilds a decrease in NRG
What are the (5) steps of cellular respiration?
1 Phosphorilation of Glucose 2 Glycolysis 3 - Conversion of Pyruvic Acid 4 - Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) 5 - Electron transport
d/ step 1 of cellular respiration: PHOSPHORILATION of GLUCOSE?
As glucose molecule enters cell wall of mitochondria. Addition of a phosphate molecule (PO4) to become glucose-6-phosphate
d/ Step 2 of cellular respiration: GLYCOLYSIS
Conversion of glucose-6-phosphate to 2 pyruvic acid molecules. It makes energy in the form of two net molecules of ATP. Four molecules of ATP per glucose are actually produced; however
d/ step 3 of cellular respiration: Conversion of Pyruvic Acid
When oxygen is present
d/ step 4 of the cellular respiration cycle: Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle) d/ the raw materials needed and the products.
If acetyl-CoA is produced the molecule then enters the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle) inside the mitochondrial matrix
d/ step 5 of cellular respiration cycle: Electron Transport Cycle 1. Dummy Answer
5 prs of H+ (from previous Krebs cycle) 2H + FAD(riboflavin) yeild FADH2 2H + NAD(niacin) yeild NADH2 then 2 electron - are pulled from Hydrogen and this is repeated 5x thf turning ADP + P = ATP thn 2 e- + 2 p yeild 2 H + O thf glucose + O2 yeild CO2 + H2O The correct answer is: None Of The Above
What are (2) uses for fat?
1 - Store as adipose tissue in liver and elswhere 2 - Source of NRG
What is the purpose of fat as adipose tissue?
1 - energy storage 2 - protection (fat around major organs) 3 - insulation (SQ fat helps keep in heat) 4 - lubication (reducr friction btwn muscle tendons)
How many Cal are in 1gm of fat?
1gm=9 Cal
What is 1st and 2cd favorite NRG source?
1st is Carbohydrates 2cd is fat