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103 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
-flow of air between atmosphere and lungs
-due to difference in air pressure
-contraction and relaxation of skeletal mm create air passage changes
lungs at rest
air pressure inside lungs is smae as atmospheric pressure & outside lungs: 760mm of mercury
inhalation; breathing in
steps of inspiration
-diaphragm mm & external intercostals mm contract
-alveoli increase in size due to lung attachment to ribs & sternum
-air pressure drops in alveoli
-air moves from high pressure to low pressure
-inhalation continues until alveolar pressure rises to 760mm Hg
exhalation; breathing out
steps of expiration
-diaphragm mm and externa intercostals mm relax
-alveoli return to normal size
-air pressure in alveoli rises to 762mm Hg
-air moves from lungs to outside enviroment
-exhalation continues til alveolar pressure drops to 760 mm Hg
shallow inhalation
external intercostals contract
deep inhalation
external intercostals and diaphragm mm contract
eupnea (exhalation)
muscles relax; cavity goes back to normal
hypernea (force exhalation)
internal intercostals contract; rib cage contracts and forces air out
gas exchange
-exchange of gases between blood capillaries and body tissues
-oxygen and Carbon dioxide diffues across membranes independent of one another
-each gas diffuses from areas where its partial pressure is high to areas where partial pressure is low
external gases
carbon dioxide moves from capillaries to alveoli

oxygen moves from alveoli to capillaries.
internal gases
carbon dioxide body tissure to capillaries

oxygen capillaries to body tissue
external respiration
(pulmonary gas exchange)
-diffusion of oxygen from alveoli sacs to capillaries
-diffusion of carbon dioxide from capillaries to air in alveoli sacs
-influenced by total surface area available for gas exchange
internal respiration
(systemic gas exchange)
-diffusion of oxygen from capillaries to body tissue
-diffusion of carbon dioxide from body tissue to capillaries.
Functions of respiratory system
1. provide area for gas exchange.
2. move air to and from exchange surface
3.protecting respiratory surface
4. defending respiratory system and other tissues from pathogenic organisms.
5. producing sounds
order of air movement in body
upper respiratory features
nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinus, pharynx
lower respiratory features
larynx, trachea, lungs
what makes up the respiratory epithelium
-psuedostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
-goblet cells & glands produce mucus that trap particles
-cilia sweep mucus laden particles to pharynx
-particles are exposed to acids and enzymes of the stomach
-epithelium at nostrils have hair to keep out particles
-mucus production increases w/exposer to vapors, allergens, or pathogens
2 routes of air entry
1. external nares-nasal cavity- internal nares-nasopharynx-laryngo pharynx
2. mouth-buccal cavity-oropharynx-laryngopharynx
bones in nasal cavity that form narrow grooves where air bounces around in cavity, churns air and allows more time for small particles to come in contact with mucus and filtered out
functions of nasal cavity
1. cleans air
2. warms air
3. humidifies air
4. exposes odorants to chemical receptors
-shared by resp & digest syst
-extends from internal nares to larynx or esophagus
-3 parts-naso, oro, and laryngo
-only air
-separated from oral cavity by soft palate
-lines by respiratory epithelium
-between soft palate and tongue
-food & air-shared area
-stratified squamous epithelium tissue
uvula at end-prevents food from entering pharynx
-between oropharynx and esophagus
-lined with respiratory epithelium
-shared with food and air
from glottis to trachea; air only
made up of 9 cartilages including epiglottis
cartilage is used for support and sound
opening for air to pass in the larynx
protects from glottis and closes over glottis when swallowing
sound production
-produced by air passing over ligaments
-paired cartilage has ligaments between them-ligaments vibrate when air passes over
-muscles between cartilage and ligament regulated tension of ligament for vocalizaion
high pitch
muscles contract, ligaments taut
low pitch
muscles relax, ligaments not taunt
-11cm long and 2.5cm across
-supported by C shaped cartilage
-allows distortion during swallowing
-cartilage stops collapsing during inhalation
-lined with respiration epithelium with goblet cells
bronchial tree
-made up of primary, secondary, and tertiary bronchi
-all supported by hyaline cartilage
primary bronchi
-2 branches from trachea
-outside of lung=extrapulmonary bronchi
-inside of lung=pulmonary bronchi
-where enters=root of lung
secondary bronchi
-next set after primary
-left 2 branches
-right 3 branches
-hyaline cart
teritiary bronchi
-3rd sed of branches, 8 & 10
-hyaline cartilage less and less
-branch from teritiary bronchi
-smooth muscle
-diameter controlled by smooth muscle
-involuntary constriction
branch into respiratory bronchioles
each branch has a lobule of aveoli sacs and ducts
alveoli sacs and ducts
-simple squamous epithelial tissue-no muscle no cartilage
-thin and delicate
-gas exchange occurs here
muscle use means?
inhalation is active
2 types of exhalation
function of heart
to pump blood throughout the body
right atrium
-recieves deoxy blood form IVC and SVC and coronary sinus
-pectinate mm
-transports blood to right ventricle by tricuspid valves
sinoatrial node (SA node)
-pacemaker of heart
-provides electric stimulus for atrial muscle (pectinate) contraction
atrioventricular node (AV node)
-connected to SA node
-transports electical stimulus to ventricles
papillary mm
-attached to cusps by tendons(chordae tendinae)
-contraction of muscle holds cusps over valves to prevent backflow
right ventricle
-recives deoxy blood from right atrium
-muscular chamber (trabeculae carnae)
-transports deoxygenated blood to pulmonary trunk and out to lungs
interventricular septum
-between ventricles
-muscles that transport nerve impulses to purkinje fibers that stimulate ventricular mm
pulmonary trunk
-artery taht transports deoxy blood from right ventricle to lungs
divides into right and left pulmonary arteries
pulmonary semilunar valves
valves that prevent back flow of blood into right ventricle
right and left pulmonary veins
transport oxygenated blood from rigth and left lungs to left atrium
left atrium
recives oxy blood from pulmonary veins
-muscular chamber (pecinated mm)
-transports blood to left ventricle by bicuspid valve
left ventricle
-recieves oxygenated blood from left atrium
-muscular chamber (trabeculae carnae)
-transports blood into ascending aorta and out of rest of body
ascending aorta
-artery that transports oxy blood for left ventricle to rest of body by aortic semilunar valves
-first branching for ascending aorda are coronary arteries that feed heart muscles
aortic semilunar valves
valves that passively close to prevent backflow of blood into left ventricle
pulmonary circuit
-blood circulates between heart & lungs
-includes right ventricle, pulmonary trunk, right and left pulmonary arteries and veins, and left atrium
systemic circuit
-blood circulates between heart and all other body tissues except lungs
-includes left ventricle, aorta, superior and inferior vena cava, and right atrium
cardiac cycle
period between beginning of one heart beat and the beginning of the next heart beat is a single cardiac cycle
2 phases of cardia cycle
systole and diastole
-contraction of heart muscles
-a chamber drains blood either into another heart chamber or into an artery
-relaxation of heart mm
-a chamber fills with blood
steps of cardiac sycle
1. atrial systole
2. ventricular systole first phase
3.ventricular systole second phase
4. ventricular diastole (early)
5. ventricular diatole late
atrial systole
atria contracts and forces remaining blood into relaxed ventricles
where atrial systole ends, atrial diastole begins
ventricular systole first phase
-contraction of ventricular muscles
-bicuspid and tricuspid valves close (LUBB)
-semilunar valves still closed (not enough pressure)
ventricular systole second phase
-pressure mounts in ventricles
-both ventricles push blood out through either the pulmonary trunk or ascending aorta
ventricular diastole (early)
-ventricles relax, pressure drops
-blood backflows into aortic and pulmonary semilunar valves closing them (DUPP)
-AV are closed
-blood passively fills into atria
ventricualr diastole (late)
av valves open and blood flows into ventricles
closing of AV valves during ventricular contraction first phase (systole)
closing of semilunar valves during ventricular relaxation early phase (diastole)
3 functions of blood
1. transportation of gases, nutrients, wastes, hormones by immune response and clotting
3.homeostasis-regulation of water, pH, and temp
red blood cells
aka. erythrocytes
-no nucleus or other typical intracellular components
-has cell membrane and hemoglobin
-main function is to transport gas
-made of globular subunits that holds a heme molecule and 4 amino acid chains
heme molecule
each holds and iron ion that can interact with oxygen
amino acid chain
-carbon dioxide binds to amino acids
-amino acids/carbon dioxide interaction is weak and disassociates easily
red blood circulation in lungs
-from alveoli sacs in lungs, oxygen diffuses into capillaries and attaches to heme molecules
-from capillaries, carbon dioxide disassociates and enters into alveoli sacs of lungs
red blood circulation in peripheral tissue
-tissues consume oxygen to make atp and releases carbon dioxide
-oxygen disassociates with heme molecules; diffuses out of capillaries and into tissues
-carbon dioxide diffuses out of tissues and into capillaries associating with amino acids
shape of cells
-biconcave with thin center
-large surface area for gas exchange
-form stacks like dinner plates
-thin enought to pass through blood vessels
-cell has bending and flexing abilities by changing shape
main function of digestive system
-break down food
-absorb nutrients into the blood to provide energy for rest of body
mouth is made up of what?
stratified squamous epithelial tissue for protection
bringing in by lips and tongue, mechanical breakdown by teeth
salivary glands and manipulation and taste is chemically broken down
3 phases of swallowing
1. buccal phase (voluntary)
2. pharyngeal phase (involuntary)
3. esophageal phase (involuntary)
buccal phase
soft palate covers nasopharyx
pharyngeal phase
smooth muscle moves food by peristalsis and stratified squamous epithelial tissue provides protection
-at end of pharynx
-bolus carries on journey to stompach by peristalsis action
-goes into abd cavity through diaphragm at hiatus
-enters stomach at cardia region
-lines with with simple squamous epithelial tissue with a lot of goblet celss that produce mucus
-mucus is secreted into lumen of stomach to protect lining from acids
-smooth muscles break down of bolus
-bolus is broken down by HCL
-bolus is now called chyme
-area of more chemical digestions
-pancreatic enzymes and bile secreted into duodenum to break down proteins and fats
jejunum and ileum
-main purpus is absorbtion of nutrients into blood
-chyme moves slowly due to plicae circulares
large intestine
-main purpose is compaction of chyme
-weak peristalsis to allow dehydration
what type of tissue are intestines
simple squamous epithelial tissue
-1st part of storage
-2nd part is anal canal
-lined with stratified squamous epithelial tissue
-muscles at end are voluntary
-orifice or hole at end of rectum
-are is part of integument system
e. coli
GOOD: is found throught intestines and helps break down chyme and manufactures vit K and B
BAD:causes hemorraging
occurs from too much water
occurs from too little water
accessory organs
teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gall bladder, and pancreaus
functions of liver
1. metabolic regulation (cleans out blood)
2. making bile
portical hepatica of liver
where everything enters or exits
area of portical hepatica of liver
-hepatic portal vein (brings blood from digestive tract)
-hepatic arteries (blood with oxygen to feel liver)
-left and right hepatic ducts(bile travels form liver to duodenum
gall bladder
-storage of bile and secretion of bile when needed
-cystic duct transports bile to and from gall bladder
-releases pancreatic enzymes to duodenum to break down proteins
-both the pancreatic duct and common bile duct come to gether to enter the duodenum at the hepatopancreatic ampullae