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85 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which cell organelle is the site of phospholipid and sterol synthesis?
a. smooth endoplasmic reticulum
b. rough endoplasmic reticulum
c. Golgi apparatus
d. peroxisomes
a. smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Which of the following organelles modifies, packages, and directs materials produced by the endoplasmic
reticulum to the proper locations?
a. the nucleus
b. the nucleolus
c. mitochondria
d. Golgi apparatus
d. Golgi apparatus
Vesicles derived from the Golgi apparatus that contain hydrolytic digestive enzymes are
a. ribosomes
b. mitochondria
c. peroxisomes
d. lysosomes
d. lysosomes
Secretory vesicles
a. contain digestive enzymes.
b. produce ATP.
c. synthesize lipids.
d. carry molecules to be released from the cell.
d. carry molecules to be released from the cell.
Which of the following is NOT a function of the cytoskeleton?
a. discriminate against and prevent certain molecules from entering the cell.
b. reinforce the plasma membrane
c. help maintain cell shape.
d. help hold the nucleus, ER, Golgi apparatus, and mitochondria in place.
a. discriminate against and prevent certain molecules from entering the cell.
Which of the following consists of a network of intracellular membranes sacks with attached ribosomes?
a. smooth endoplasmic
b. rough endoplasmic reticulum
c. Golgi apparatus
d. mitochondria
b. rough endoplasmic reticulum
Which function is associated with the rough endoplasmic reticulum?
a. ATP synthesis
b. protein synthesis
c. DNA synthesis
d. glycogen synthesis
b. protein synthesis
Cyanide and azide are poisons that block the reactions of oxidative metabolism used to synthesize
ATP. Which organelle do they target?
a. mitochondria
b. ribosomes
c. lysosomes
d. the Golgi apparatus
a. mitochondria
Muscle cells contain numerous _______ because of their high demand for ATP.
a. ribosomes
b. lysosomes
c. mitochondria
d. microtubules
c. mitochondria
A cell that synthesizes large amounts of protein for use outside the cell would require a large
a. number of lysosomes
b. number of mitochondria
c. amount of rough endoplasmic reticulum
d. amount of smooth endoplasmic reticulum
c. amount of rough endoplasmic reticulum
A secretory epithelial cell would require a large
a. number of cilia
b. amount of Golgi apparatus
c. number of lysosomes
d. number of microvilli
b. amount of Golgi apparatus
Some substances are found to cross the cell membrane while others are excluded. The cell
membrane is __________________.
a. impermeable
b. porous
c. freely permeable
d. selectively permeable
d. selectively permeable
Which of the following is NOT a function of the plasma membrane?
a. defines the boundary and maintains the structural integrity of the cell
b. allows the cell to control its internal environment
c. prevents water from entering the cell
d. serves as a selective barrier allowing regulated transport in and out of the cell
c. prevents water from entering the cell
When a sperm cell comes into contact with an egg cell, there is a change in the electrical charge
across the plasma membrane and various channel proteins close. These channels would be called
a. constitutively open ion channels
b. ligand-gated ion channels
c. voltage-gated ion channels
d. mechanically-gated ion channels
c. voltage-gated ion channels
Ion channels that open or close upon binding a specific molecule are _________.
a. voltage-gated
b. phosphorylation-gated
c. ligand-gated
d. mechanically-gated
c. ligand-gated
K+ leakage channels
a. are always open but slowly conducting.
b. allow K+ to move down its electrochemical gradient.
c. Help to create the cell membrane potential.
d. All of the above are correct.
e. Only A and B are correct.
d. All of the above are correct.
The movement of oxygen from a higher concentration in the lungs to a lower concentration in the
blood stream is an example of
a. net diffusion
b. primary active transport
c. secondary active transport
d. bulk transport
a. net diffusion
Which of the following statements regarding diffusion is TRUE?
a. Diffusion is physiologically useful for transport of molecules only over short distances.
b. Assuming the solute can cross the membrane, the rate of net diffusion of the solute across the
membrane can be increased by increasing its concentration gradient across the membrane.
c. The rate of diffusion is not dependent on the size of the molecule.
d. Both A and B are true.
d. Both A and B are true.
Cyanide stops the production of ATP. Which of the following processes would be affected?
a. simple diffusion
b. net diffusion
c. active transport
d. facilitated diffusion
c. active transport
What characteristic is shared by simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion?
a. Both require cellular energy for the transport of substances.
b. Both involve the movement of molecules up their concentration gradient.
c. Both require a special carrier molecule to move substances across the membrane.
d. Both involve the net movement of molecules across the membrane from regions of higher
concentration to lower concentration and require no input of energy.
d. Both involve the net movement of molecules across the membrane from regions of higher
concentration to lower concentration and require no input of energy.
In the process of simple diffusion, the rate at which a molecule passes through a membrane depends
on all of the following EXCEPT
a. the surface area of the membrane
b. the number of carrier proteins in the membrane
c. the size of the molecule
d. the concentration difference from one side of the membrane to the other
b. the number of carrier proteins in the membrane
Membrane transport proteins are necessary to facilitate the movement of _____________ across the
membrane.
a. ions
b. large polar molecules
c. hydrophobic molecules
d. Both A and B are correct.
d. Both A and B are correct.
The net movement of a hydrophobic molecule across the membrane down its concentration
gradient would occur by _______________.
a. simple diffusion
b. facilitated diffusion
c. neither simple nor facilitated diffusion
a. simple diffusion
All of the following processes can move substances out of a cell EXCEPT
a. exocytosis
b. simple diffusion
c. active transport
d. phagocytosis
d. phagocytosis
The Na+/K+ ATPase couples the transport of Na+ out of the cell and K+ into the cell by which of the
following mechanisms?
a. simple diffusion
b. facilitated diffusion
c. primary active transport
d. secondary active transport
c. primary active transport
Cells lining the lumen of the small intestine absorb amino acids from the intestinal contents. They
can concentrate the amino acids to intracellular concentrations that exceed the concentration in the
lumen. Removing Na+ from the intestinal contents inhibits their ability to absorb amino acids, even
when the cells have plentiful supplies of ATP. You conclude that amino acid uptake into these cells
occurs via:
a. simple diffusion
b. facilitated diffusion
c. primary active transport
d. secondary active transport
d. secondary active transport
Which of these substances diffuse directly through the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane?
a. glucose and amino acids
b. Na+ and Clc.
O2 and CO2
d. proteins
c. O2 and CO2
Which of these transport processes does NOT require ATP?
a. primary active transport
b. endocytosis
c. exocytosis
d. simple diffusion
d. simple diffusion
Given these characteristics of a transport process:
1. net movement down a concentration gradient
2. does not require energy
3. requires carrier molecules
Which of these processes is described?
a. simple diffusion
b. facilitated diffusion
c. primary active transport
d. secondary active transport
e. exocytosis
b. facilitated diffusion
Which of the following processes uses the energy stored in a transmembrane electrochemical gradient
to transport a substance across a lipid membrane against its concentration gradient?
a. simple diffusion
b. facilitated diffusion
c. primary active transport
d. secondary active transport
d. secondary active transport
Fusion of a secretory vesicle with the plasma membrane and release of its contents outside the cell
describes the process of
a. simple diffusion.
b. facilitated diffusion
c. primary active transport
d. endocytosis
e. exocytosis
e. exocytosis
The process of exocytosis is used by cells to:
a. secrete proteins from the cell.
b. add new proteins to the plasma membrane.
c. add lipids to the plasma membrane.
d. All of the above are correct.
d. All of the above are correct.
Which of the following statements concerning net diffusion is true?
a. At equilibrium the net movement of the molecule stops.
b. At equilibrium random molecular motion continues.
c. At equilibrium there is an equal movement of molecule in all directions.
d. At equilibrium the concentration of the molecule is equal throughout the solution.
e. All of the above.
e. All of the above.
Which of these statements about facilitated diffusion is TRUE?
a. In facilitated diffusion, net movement is down the concentration gradient.
b. Facilitated diffusion requires the expenditure of energy.
c. Facilitated diffusion does not require a carrier protein.
d. Facilitated diffusion moves materials in vesicles.
a. In facilitated diffusion, net movement is down the concentration gradient.
A white blood cell ingests a bacterium by infoldings in the plasma membrane. This describes the
process of
a. exocytosis
b. facilitated diffusion
c. secondary active transport
d. phagocytosis
d. phagocytosis
Epithelial cells with microvilli are most likely found
a. lining blood vessels
b. in serous membranes
c. in the skin
d. lining the digestive tract
d. lining the digestive tract
The four primary types of tissues are:
a. epithelial, cartilage, muscular and brain
b. connective, epithelial, skin and blood
c. epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous
d. glands, bone, lungs and kidneys
c. epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous
Which tissue forms coverings, linings, and glands?
a. adipose tissue
b. epithelial tissue
c. connective tissue
d. nervous tissue
b. epithelial tissue
A tissue specialized for energy storage and thermal insulation is
a. cartilage
b. muscular tissue
c. adipose tissue
d. epithelial tissue
c. adipose tissue
Given these characteristics:
1. capable of contraction
2. covers free body surfaces
3. lacks blood vessels
4. composes various glands
5. anchored to connective tissue by a basement membrane
Which of these are characteristics of epithelial tissue?
a. 1,2,3
b. 2,3,5
c. 3,4,5
d. 2,3,4,5
d. 2,3,4,5
All connective tissues originate from the _______ of the embryo.
a. ground substance
b. adipose tissue
c. mucous membranes
d. mesenchyme
d. mesenchyme
Epithelial tissue is characterized by
a. tightly packed cells
b. absence of any basement membrane
c. extensive extracellular matrix
d. a rich blood supply
a. tightly packed cells
Which of the following is a function of epithelial tissue?
a. Conduction of action potentials
b. Secretion and absorption of molecules
c. Covering and protecting of other tissue types
d. Contraction and relaxation
c. Covering and protecting of other tissue types
Epithelium composed of two or more layers of cells is known as
a. stratified epithelium
b. simple epithelium
c. pseudostratified epithelium
d. columnar epithelium
a. stratified epithelium
Stratified epithelium is usually found in areas of the body where the principal activity is
a. filtration
b. protection
c. absorption
d. secretion
b. protection
A tissue that covers a surface, is one cell layer thick, and is composed of flat cells is
a. simple squamous epithelium
b. simple cuboidal epithelium
c. simple columnar epithelium
d. stratified squamous epithelium
a. simple squamous epithelium
A multilayered epithelium with cuboidal cells forming the basal surface and flattened cells at the
apical surface would be classified as:
a. stratified cuboidal
b. stratified squamous
c. simple cuboidal
d. simple squamous
b. stratified squamous
Exocrine glands whose ducts do not branch are classified as
a. simple
b. compound
c. acinar
d. alveolar
a. simple
In a(n) _______ gland, entire cells break down to form the secretion.
a. exocrine
b. merocrine
c. holocrine
d. autocrine
c. holocrine
An exocrine gland has a duct that branches repeatedly, and the ducts end in round saclike structures.
This describes a _____________ gland.
a. simple tubular
b. compound tubular
c. simple coiled tubular
d. simple acinar
e. compound acinar
e. compound acinar
According to their function, there are two major types of epithelial tissue, these are
a. epithelial tissue and cartilage
b. holocrine and apocrine glands
c. transitional and pseudostratified epithelium
d. covering and lining and glandular epithelium
d. covering and lining and glandular epithelium
Which of these cell connections attach epithelial cells to the basement membrane?
a. desmosomes
b. gap junctions
c. hemidesmosomes
d. tight junctions
c. hemidesmosomes
Which of the following statements concerning desmosomes is FALSE?
a. Desmosomes are cell-cell junctions with attachments to the cytoskeleton of each cell.
b. Desmosomes function as occluding junctions, preventing molecules from passing through the
extracellular space between adjacent cells.
c. Desmosomes function to anchor cells together.
d. Desmosomes help to distribute tension throughout a cellular sheet.
b. Desmosomes function as occluding junctions, preventing molecules from passing through the
extracellular space between adjacent cells.
The type of cell junction that acts as an occluding junction between epithelial cells to prevent, for
example, the contents of the stomach or urinary bladder from leaking into surrounding tissues is:
a. gap junctions
b. desmosomes
c. hemidesmosomes
d. tight junctions
d. tight junctions
Which cell-cell junction effectively connects the cytoplasms of two cells and facilitates the cell-tocell
passage of ions and small polar molecules?
a. gap junctions
b. desmosomes
c. hemidesmosomes
d. tight junctions
a. gap junctions
The secretions of endocrine glands are released
a. onto the skin surface
b. into the interstitial fluid
c. into a gland duct
d. directly into the blood stream
b. into the interstitial fluid
Glands that produce hormones are
a. endocrine glands
b. exocrine glands
c. holocrine glands
d. merocrine glands
b. exocrine glands
The free surface of an epithelial cell layer exposed to the body exterior or an internal cavity is
referred to as the:
a. basal surface
b. basal lamina
c. lateral surface
d. apical surface
d. apical surface
The layer of epithelial tissue lining the lumen of blood vessels and lymph vessels and the chambers
of the heart is referred to as:
a. mucosa
b. epithelium
c. endothelium
d. mesothelium
c. endothelium
The epithelial tissue that covers the body surface and lines the lumens of the digestive, respiratory,
and urogenital tracts is referred to as:
a. mucosa
b. epithelium
c. endothelium
d. mesothelium
b. epithelium
The layer of epithelial tissue that covers the serous membranes (e.g. the pericardium and pleural
sacks) is referred to as:
a. mucosa
b. epithelium
c. endothelium
d. mesothelium
d. mesothelium
Which of these membranes contains a layer of mesothelium?
a. mucous membrane
b. serous membrane
c. cutaneous membrane
d. synovial membrane
b. serous membrane
__________ membranes line the pericardial, peritoneal, and pleural cavities.
a. mucous
b. serous
c. cutaneous
d. synovial
b. serous
Linings of the digestive, respiratory, urogenital passages are composed of
a. serous membranes
b. mucous membranes
c. cutaneous membranes
d. endothelium
b. mucous membranes
Epithelial cells adapted for absorption typically have ________ on their apical surface.
a. cilia
b. microvilli
c. flagella
d. hemidesmosomes
b. microvilli
It makes sense that capillaries are lined with simple squamous epithelium. Respiratory gases,
nutrients, and metabolic waste products are exchanged between the blood and the interstitial fluid by
net diffusion across this layer, and …
a. diffusion is effective for transport only over short distances.
b. the rate of net diffusion across a barrier is inversely proportional to the thickness of the barrier.
c. the rate of net diffusion across a barrier is unaffected by the thickness of the barrier.
d. Both A and B are correct.
d. Both A and B are correct.
The three main components of connective tissue are:
a. ground substance, fibers, and cells
b. collagen, elastin, and reticular fibers
c. fibroblasts, chondroblasts, and osteoblasts
d. microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate filaments
a. ground substance, fibers, and cells
Connective tissue cells that produce the extracellular matrix as the tissue develops are called
a. blast cells
b. cyte cells
c. clast cells
d. mast cells
a. blast cells
The fibers in dense connective tissue proper are produced by
a. fibroblasts
b. adipocytes
c. osteoblasts
d. macrophages
a. fibroblasts
Chondrocytes are to cartilage as osteocytes are to ____________.
a. bone
b. blood
c. fat
d. epithelium
a. bone
Which type of tissue is described by the following three characteristics?
1. matrix composed almost entirely of collagen fibers
2. fibers can all be oriented in the same direction or in many different directions
3. able to withstand great pulling forces in the direction of fiber orientation
a. adipose tissue
b. cartilage
c. dense connective tissue proper
d. areolar connective tissue proper
c. dense connective tissue proper
Given these characteristics:
1. cells located in lacunae
2. proteoglycans in the ground substance
3. no collagen fibers present
4. perichondrium covers the surface
5. heals rapidly after injury
Which of these characteristics apply to hyaline cartilage?
a. 1,2,3
b. 1,2,4
c. 2,4,5
d. 1,2,4,5
e. 2,3,4,5
b. 1,2,4
Extremely delicate fibers that make up the internal framework for organs such as the liver, spleen, and
lymph nodes are
a. elastic fibers
b. reticular fibers
c. microvilli
d. collagen fibers
b. reticular fibers
Which of these is NOT a connective tissue?
a. blood
b. muscle
c. cartilage
d. areolar tissue
b. muscle
The hydrated gel in the extracellular matrix is composed mostly of water and
a. proteoglycans
b. collagen
c. keratin
d. reticular fibers
a. proteoglycans
A general characteristic of connective tissue is that it
a. consists of cells with much intercellular material between them
b. has no blood supply to the tissue
c. covers the body’s surface
d. commonly is found lining body cavities
a. consists of cells with much intercellular material between them
Fibrocartilage is found
a. in the rib cage
b. in the external ear
c. on the ends of long bones in moveable joints
d. between vertebrae
d. between vertebrae
The internal connective tissue framework of the liver is called the ________ of the liver.
a. serosa
b. stroma
c. parenchyma
d. trabecula
b. stroma
Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium is found in the
a. lining of the mouth
b. lining of the vagina
c. lining of the small intestine
d. skin
d. skin
The epithelium that covers the skin is called the
a. dermis
b. epidermis
c. hypodermis
d. mesodermis
b. epidermis
A major function of the skin is protection the underlying tissue from
a. abrasion
b. ultraviolet light
c. entry of microorganisms
d. dehydration
e. All of these.
e. All of these.
Epinephrine and norepinephrine are regulatory substances that cause peripheral vasoconstriction,
which means they cause the dermal blood vessels to narrow. Why is it important for the body to be
able to constrict blood vessels in the skin?
a. By constricting dermal blood vessels, the blood can be diverted (shunted) to tissues that need it
more (for example, muscles during exercise).
b. When you are cold, constriction of dermal blood vessels helps to retain heat in the body by
reducing the loss of heat through the skin.
c. When you are overheated, constriction of dermal blood vessels produces sensible perspiration on
the surface of the skin.
d. Both A and B are correct.
d. Both A and B are correct.
The skin serves several other functions in addition to providing a physical barrier against the
external environment. Which of the following is another vital function of the skin?
a. The cells of the epidermis store glucose as glycogen for energy.
b. The skin plays a major role in eliminating nitrogenous wastes from the body.
c. Vitamin D3, an inactive precursor of vitamin D, is formed in the dermal blood vessels of the
skin.
d. A major site of triglyceride storage is adipose tissue within the dermis of the skin.
c. Vitamin D3, an inactive precursor of vitamin D, is formed in the dermal blood vessels of the
skin.
Which of the following epidermal cells functions in immunity?
a. Langerhans' cells
b. Merkel cells
c. keratinocytes
d. melanocytes
a. Langerhans' cells
A splinter would penetrate the epidermal layers of the palm of the hand in which order?
a. stratum corneum, stratum spinosum, stratum basale, stratum granulosum
b. stratum corneum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, stratum basale
c. stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, stratum basale
d. stratum basale, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, stratum lucidum, stratum corneum
c. stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, stratum basale