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30 Cards in this Set

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Which body system is the major contributor to the excretion of water-soluble end products of metabolism in the body?
The renal/urinary system
Which body system is the major contributor to the excretion of hydrophobic, lipid-soluble end products of metabolism in the body?
The hepatobiliary system
Name the excretory function of the liver.
Excretion of lipid-soluble waste products

,,,the question is weird
Waste products of metabolism can be divided into which two broad categories?
Waste products of the body are either water soluble or lipid soluble. Water soluble waste products are excreted by the renal/urinary system while lipid soluble products are excreted by the hepatobiliary portion of the gastrointestinal system.
What are the two functions of bile?
Bile solubilizes hydrophobic molecules, allowing for either A) their excretion into the GI tract and B) their absorption from the GI tract
What is the name of the structure that connects the liver to the anterior abdominal wall?
The falciform ligament
What is the falciform ligament?
The falciform ligament connects the liver to the anterior abdominal wall
What is the ligamentum teres?
The ligamentum teres, contained within the falciform ligament, is the remnant of obliterated umbilical vein.
What is the coronary ligament?
The coronary ligament is the peritoneal reflection on top of the liver that crowns it ("coronary") and attaches it to the diaphragm.
What is the origin of the hepatic arterial supply?
The right and left hepatic arteries branch from the proper hepatic artery, which branches from the common hepatic artery, which branches from the celiac trunk, which is the first big branch off the abdominal aorta.
The hepatic veins feed into which vessel?
Inferior vena cava (IVC)
The liver gets 50% of its oxygen from the hepatic arterial blood.

Where does the other 50% come from?
Portal venous blood

Explain this...
What is the association between the liver and Prometheus?
There's a myth in which Prometheus was chained to a rock in the Caucasus where, each day, his liver was devoured by an eagle only to grow back each night.

Some think the myth indicates that the ancient Greeks knew about the liver’s remarkable capacity for self-repair, since the etymology of ἧπαρ (Greek for liver) is derived from ἠπάομαι, meaning mend, repair.
What is the maximum amount of liver that can be resected while retaining adequate liver function?
>80%

If given adequate recovery time, the original mass can be regenerated.
Name 4 veins that drain into the portal vein.
1) Coronary vein (stomach)
2) Superior mesenteric vein
3) Inferior mesenteric vein
4) Splenic vein
What is the ampulla of Vater?

What is the ampulla of Vater an anatomic landmark of?
The ampulla of Vater is the opening through which the common bile duct and pancreatic duct open into the duodenum.

The ampulla of Vater is an important landmark, halfway along the second part of the duodenum, that marks the anatomical transition from foregut to midgut (and hence the point where the celiac trunk stops supplying the gut and the superior mesenteric artery takes over).
Into what part of the GI tract do the common bile duct and the pancreatic duct empty?
Duodenum
What is the Sphincter of Oddi?
The sphincter of Oddi is a muscular valve that controls the flow of bile and pancreatic juice through the Ampulla of Vater and into the duodenum.

The Sphincter of Oddi is relaxed, and thus flow of bile and pancreatic juice is increased, by the hormone cholecystokinin (CCK)
What is the name of the sphincter that controls flow of bile and pancreatic juice through the Ampulla of Vater into the duodenum?
Sphincter of Oddi
What is the name of the opening where the pancreatic duct and common bile duct empty together into the duodenum?
Ampulla of Vader
Which two branches of the hepatobiliary tree come together to form the common bile duct?
1) Cystic duct (from the gallbladder)
2) Common hepatic duct (from the liver)

The common hepatic duct itself arises when the right and left hepatic ducts come together.
The branch of the hepatobiliary tree arising from the gallbladder is called...
The cystic duct
The final branch of the hepatobiliary tree leading from the liver is called...
The common hepatic duct
Which two branches of the hepatobiliary tree come together to form the common hepatic duct?
The right and left hepatic ducts
Name the boundaries of the triangle of Calot.
Superiorly: cystic artery
Inferiorly: cystic duct
Medially: common hepatic duct
What is the name of the triangle formed within the boundaries of the cystic artery (superior boundary), cystic duct (inferior boundary), and common hepatic duct (medial boundary?)
Triangle of Calot
What is the enterohepatic circulation?
Circulation of bile acids from liver to gut and back to the liver
In what part of the GI tract are bile acids absorbed?
Distal ileum
From whence does cholecystokinin (CCK) come from?

I.e. which cells secrete it?
Duodenal mucosal cells
What stimulates gallbladder emptying?
Cholecystokinin (CCK) and parasympathetic stimulation via the vagus nerve.