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91 Cards in this Set

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How many phosphates does ADP contain?
2
How many phosphates does ATP contain?
3
What are the two processes in which ATP is formed?
Substrate Level Phosphorylation and Oxidated Phosphorylation
What is Substrate Level Phosphorylation?
High energy substrate with a phosphate transfers that phosphate to ADP to make ATP
What is Oxidated
Phosphorylation?
High energy electrons are extracted from nutrients (proteins,carbs,fats) and are then carried to electron transport system where the energy is is extracted from the electrons used to make ATP.
What is the manner in which most ATP is made?
Oxidated Phosphorylation
What are some of the "nutrients" that high energy electrons are extracted from during Oxidated Phosphorylation?
Fats, Carbs and Proteins
What is metabolism?
The final breakdown of energy during food absorption (catabolism) + the production of new tissues and molecules.
What is oxidation?
The removal of electrons.
What is reduction?
The addition of electrons.
What are coenzymes?
Vitamins
What are coenzymes responsible for?
Carrying electrons.
What are the primary energy molecules?
Glucose
How is glucose chemically represented?
6 Carbons or C-C-C-C-C-C
How does glucose enter the cell?
Aided by insulin.
What are the 2 "reducing agents" that food chemicals are converted to in order to make ATP?
NADH and FADH
What vitamin is NADH?
Niacin
What vitamin is FADH?
Riboflavin
What does the symbol "+" indicate?
Oxidated
What does the symbol "H" indicate?
Reduced
In glycolysis, what happens when a glucose molecule enters the cytoplasm?
A phosphate group is attached.
When does the absorptive state take place?
After a meal.
What hormone aids in food absorption after a meal?
Insulin
What takes place during the post-absorptive state?
Low energy levels.
What are 3 hormones that are responsible for leveling out blood sugar?
Glucogon,Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
What is another name for metabolic stress?
Starvation
What happens during metabolic stress?
Glucose levels drop, Fat cannot pass the blood brain barrier, fat is converted to ketone bodies.
What are some examples of ketone bodies?
Acetone, Acetoacetate
What happens during ketosis?
The elevation of ketone bodies in the blood and a lowered blood pH.
ATP
High energy phosphate used to store and release energy in the body.
Oxidative Phosphorylation
Electrons are extrected from nutrients and then carried to the electron transport chain where the energy is extracted from the electrons used to make ATP
FAD
Riboflavin
Glycolysis
Break down of sugar by cells
Cellular energy production
Kreb's Cycle
conversion of carbohydrates and lipids (sugars and fats) into ATP
Body's main source of energy.
Glycogenesis
process whereby the liver converts a portion of glucose to glycogen
Electron Transport Chain
group of electron carriers in mitochondria that transport electrons to and from each other in a sequence, in order to generate ATP.
Beta Oxidation
Process by which fat is broken down in order to generate ATP.
(Acetocholine)
Transamination
the process of transposing an amino group within a chemical compound
Gluconeogenesis
The production of glucose, a carbohydrate, from either fat or protein
Liver/Kidney
Deamination
the amino grp is removed and placed into the urea cycle ehich converts it into urea which is excreted in the urine
Ketosis
abnormal accumulation of ketone bodies due to an inadequate intake or metabolism of carbohydrates and an increased fatty acid metabolism
Adipose Capsule
one consisting largely of fat
Insulin
a peptide hormone that enables the body to metabolize and use glucose.
Pancreas
Glucagon
Amino acid that can increase glucose levels (opposite of insulin).
Renal Pelvis
the tube that connects the kidney to the bladder.
-center of the kidney
-urine collects here
Glomerulus
Blood vessels in the kidney where blood is filtered to form urine.
Part of nephron
Loop of Henele
A U-shaped loop between the proximal and distal tubules in the kidney
Absorb water/ions kidney.
Proximal Convuluted Tubule
the segment of the renal tubule that drains Bowman's capsule.
Afferent Arteriole
A blood vessel within the kidney that supplies blood to the glomerulus.
Vasa Recta
Long, straight capillaries that parallel the loop of Henle in juxtamedullary nephrons.
Ureters
two tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder
Urethra
A thin tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body.
Hyperkalemia
high amounts of potassium in the blood.
Cardiac arrest
ADH
Hormone produced by the body to reduce the amount of water excreted as urine.
Aldosterone
a hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that controls sodium and potassium in the blood.
Peritubular Vessels
-AKA- vasa recta
Cryptochidism
one or both testicles do not descend into the scrotum.
Interstitial Cells
Cells in the testes that secrete male sex hormones.
Seminiferous Tubules
Tubules on the interior of the testes where sperm are produced.
Efferent Ducts
Tubules that carry substances away from, part of the testes and connect the rete testis with the epididymis
Epididymis
Head/Body/Tail
long, tightly coiled tube that lies behind each testicle. The epididymis collects the sperm made by the testicles.
Ductus Deferens
thick-walled tube in the male reproductive system that transports sperm cells from the epididymis.
Prostate Gland
surrounds base of male bladder and urethra and produces prostatic fluid; contains seminal plasmin-"antibiotic"
Cowper's Gland
produces lubricant a man makes before ejaculation. aids in the reduction of male UTI
Granulosa Cells
Project micro-villi into the primary oocyte
Primary Oocyte
A cell that undergoes meiosis in females.
arrested in Prophase of Meiosis I.
Luteinizing Hormone
This hormone is secreted by the pituitary gland. LH stimulates the secretion of sex hormones in both men and women.
Fallopian Tubes
the passageway from the ovaries to the uterus. It is the path through which the eggs/sperm travels into the uterus.
Endometrium
mucous membrane lining of the inner surface of the uterus that grows during each menstrual cycle and is shed in menstrual blood.
Follicle Stimulating Hormone
a hormone produced by the pituitary gland in the brain that stimulates the testicles to produce sperm in males and causes eggs to mature in females
Corpus Luteum
A structure formed from the ovulated follicle in the ovary; secretes progesterone and estrogen. Preparation for pregnancy
Give 2 examples of reduction.
NAD + e(+) = NADH
FADH + e(+)= FADH(2)
Where does Glycolysis take place?
In the cytoplasm
Where does Decarboxylation take place?
In the mitochondria
Where does the Krebs Cycle take place?
In the matrix of the mitochondria
What is the product of Glycolysis?
Pyruvic Acid (Pyruvate)
Protein Metabolism
#1 purpose is the removal of the amino group. (deamination)
Lypolysis -aka- Fat Metabolism
Lypolysis is the natural biochemical process of burning fat and dissolving fat for energy.
Steps in Lypolysis
-Beta Carbon is cut by enzymes
-2 carbon fragments are produced (acetylcholine)
-acetycholine fed to Krebs Cycle
-high energy electrons extracted
Fat Metabolism Diagram
H H H H H O
| | | | | |
H-C- C/ C- C/ C- C-OH
| | | | | |
H H H H H H
Ketone Generation
-low glucose state
-fat cannot pass BBB
-fat is converted to ketone bodies (acetone,acetoacetate)
-ketone bodies can pass BBB
Hormone during absorptive state
Insulin
Hormones during Post-Absorptive State
Glucogon-maintain blood sugar lvl
Epinephrine-mobilizes stored energy
Norepinephrine-mobilizes stored energy
Hormones that effect water and blood pressure balance in the body
Cortisol-blood pressure
Aldosterone- blood and water
ADH- water
Where are the reproductive hormones made and what controls their production?
Testosterone-testes,interstitial cells
Luteinizing Hormone-
eggs and sperm,anterior pituitary
Progesterone-corpus luteum,ovulation
hCG-placenta,pregnancy
Estrogen-ovaries/testes,secondary sex characteristics
Follicle Stimulating Hormone-
pituitary gland,egg and sperm production
Features of the ovarian cycle
oogonia-atem cell
3-7 months pass
primary oocyte-primary foll.
puberty
primary oocyte-prim foll.-pub
primary oocyte-secondary foll
secondary oocyte-tertiary fol
Uterine Cycle
Menses(1-5 days)
Proliferative Phase (6-14)
Secretory (15-28)
Fertilization
Fertilization
sperm-->oocyte
Capacitaion
sperm activation sperm-->seminal fluid
Sperm Travel
vagina-->ampulla
Pregnacy
semen->vagina->cervix->uterus->uterine tube-> oocyte->corona radiata/zona pellucida->egg nucleus
Lactation
secretions are emptied into lactiferous duct which leads to nipple
Menopause
ovaries stop producing eggs, her body produces less estrogen and progesterone, and menstruation becomes less frequent, eventually stopping altogether.