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57 Cards in this Set

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Name the 4 basic tissue types?
neural, muscle, connective, and epithelial
Name the 5 characteristics of epithelial tissue?
CPAAR
cellularity, polarity, attachemnt, avascularity, regeneration
Cellularity?
cell closely bound by cell junctions
Polarity?
uneven distribution of cytoplasm and organelles.
difference in struture and function of apical and basal surface
Attachment?
bound to basal lamina
Avascularity?
obtain nutrients by diffusion
Regeneration?
high rate of cell division and replacement
Give the 4 functions of epithelial?
control permeability, protection, provide sensation, produce secretions
List major epithelial cell specializations and their locations?
Generally polar

movement of fluids over a surface for lubrication and protection, movement of fluids through epithelium to control permeability, produce secretions for protection or as a messenger.
Microvilli?
Increase surface area, sign of site of absorbtion and secretion.
Cilia?
use a beating motion to move substances ex mucus.
Name 3 factors that give epithlial its strength or integrity?
intercellular conncetions,attachment to basal lamina, maintanence and repair (regeneration)
Name the 3 cell junctions?
tight, gap, and desmosome( divided into button and hemi)
Tight?
Uses a continuous adhesion belt to bind by interlockin membrane protiens to lipid portion of nighbors. prevent passage of water and solutes like digestive track
Gap?
intercellular communication by channel proteins connexons which allow movement of small molecules and ions,ex cells w/ cilia or cardiac & smooth muscle
Mechanical stresses?
bending, stretching, twisting, or compression
Desmosomes?
PROTEOGLYCANS(INTERCELLULAR CEMENT)AND CAMs LINK OPPOSING CELL MEMBRANES at the desne area which is connected to the cytoskeleton TO CREATE A STRONG DURABLE CONNECTION
Button desmosomes?
Small disks of intermediat fibers that act as cross braces
Hemidesmosome?
Half buttons that bind to extracellular filaments and anchor cell position to underlying connective tissue
Basal lamina?
or basement membrane made of 2 layers
lamina lucida?
thin clear layer that contains glycoproteins and acts as barrier to large molecules and protein
Lamina densa?
deeper layer, gives it its strength fibers attach the two layers and hemidesmosomes attach cell to basal lamina. densa also acts as a filter that determins what substances can diffuse b/t tissues
simple epithelia?
1 layer thick, frigile, found in internal compartments and pasageways including ventral body cavities heart chambers and blood vessels, good for secretion and absorbtion
Stratified?
more than 1 layer thick provide protection from mechanicle or chemical stresses found in the skin and lining of the mouth
Squamous?
thin flat jigsaw like,
Cuboidal?
tiny boxes or hexagons nucleus in the middle
Columnar?
tall and slender
Mesothelium?
simple squamous that line chambers or passageways that do not communicate w/ the outside world ex superficial layer of pleura, peritoneum and pericardium
Endothelium?
simple squamous epithelial lining inner surface of heart and blood vessels
endo inside
germinative cells
stem cells located near the basal lamina
Simple squamous?
line ventral body cavities inside(endo) and out(meso),secretion absorbtion, slick slippery surface reduces friction, controls vessle permeability
Stratified squamous?
layers proved protection against abrasions (mechanical), patogen or chemical attack some cells are keritinized
Keratin?
protein that is water resistant and tough can protect against dehydration
Simple cuboidal?
limited protection, secretion and absorbtion found in gland, ducts,lines kidney tubules thyroid gland
Stratified cuboidal?
rare line some ducts protection secretion absorbtion found in sweat and mammary glands
Simple columnar?
protection secretion absorption found in stomach small and large intestine
Stratified columnar?
protection, found in
Endocrine?
release hormones directly into interstitiual fluid to regulate tissues, organs and organs systems
exocrine?
glands w/ ducts
give 3 modes of secretion?
meracrine, apocrine, holocrine
meracrine?
most common release by exocytosis ex sweat and salivary
apocrine?
apo = off
shed off a portion of cytoplasam w/ secretory vesicles ex mammary are both apo and mera
Holocrine?
burst like a lytic cell releasing vesicles
Give 3 types of secretions?
serous, mucous, mixed
serous secretions?
secretes watery solution of enzymes ex partoid salivary gland
Mucous secretions?
secretes mucin that hydrates to mucous ex sublinguil salivary gland and submucosal of small intestine
Mixed secretions?
ex submandibular
Goblet cell?
only unicellular exocrine gland, which secretes mucin ex tracha small and large intestine
Multicellular exocrine glands are characterized by 3 characteristics?
duct structure(simple compound)
Shape (tubular-straight or coiled,alveolar or acinar)
Relationhip b/t duct and gland area branched or not
Gland cells?
epithelial cells that produce secretions
Connective tissues have?
specialized cell, extra cellular protein fibers, a fluid known as ground substance
Matrix?
Extracellular fluid and ground substance
matrix accounts for most of epithelial tissue volume
What does connective tissue do?
highly vascular contains sensory receptors, establishs framework by supporting surrounding and interconnecting other tissues, transports fluid, protects organs, store energy and defends agains microbs
3 general connective tissues are?
connective tissue proper, fluid and supporting
Connective tissue proper?
divided into loose and dense
Fluid connective tissue?
two types blood and lymph, cells suspended in watery matrix that contains dissolved proteins
Supporting connective tissue?
Cartilage and bone support weight of body and protect soft tissue, cartilage matrix is gel, bone is calcified