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46 Cards in this Set

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What structure do the apex and inferior border of the heart lie upon?
The diaphragm
Which surface of the heart is the base? What structures is it made up of?
The base of the heart is its posterior surface, made up of the atria, mostly the left atrium
What is the pericardium? Describe the layers of the pericardium.
The pericardium is a membrane that surrounds and protects the heart within the mediastinum.

Composed of two principal layers:
1) Fibrous pericardium
2) Serous pericardium (containing pericardial fluid)

The serous pericardium is a continuous layer that folds over itself in a manner similar to the pleural membrane. It is thus divided into two layers: the parietal pericardium and the visceral pericardium, with a small amount of pericardial fluid filling the space between.

The visceral pericardium is also called the epicardium.
What are the two layers of the serous pericardium? What is the potential space between these two layers called? What is inside this space?
1) Parietal pericardium (lies against fibrous pericardium)

2) Visceral pericardium (also called the epicardium, lies against myocardium of the heart wall)

Potential space called pericardial cavity, pericardial fluid inside
The epicardium is another name for what membranous layer?
Visceral pericardium
Where is pericardial fluid located?
Within the pericardial cavity, a potential space between the parietal pericardium and the visceral pericardium (epicardium)
Describe the three layers of the heart wall:
1) Epicardium (visceral pericardium)

2) Myocardium

3) Endocardium
What is the etymology of ventricle?
Latin, little belly
What is the coronary sulcus? What structures does it mark the boundaries of? What other sulcus is the coronary sulcus continous with at the back of the heart? What structures does it mark the boundaries of?
The coronary sulcus is a groove encircling most of the heart, marking externaly boundary between the superior atria and the inferior ventricles.

Posteriorly it continues as the posterior inverventricular sulcus, marking the external boundaries between the ventricles on the posterior aspect of the heart
Which three veins does the right atrium receive blood from?
Superior vena cava (SVC), inferior vena cava (IVC), coronary sinus
What is the name of the oval depression on the interatrial septum? What is this depression a remnant of?
Fossa ovalis, remnant of the foramen ovale (closes soon after birth)
Which valve lies between the right atrium and the right ventricle?
Tricuspid valve
Which structure forms most of the anterior surface of the heart?
Right ventricle
What are the trabeculae carnae?
The trabeculae carneae (little beams) are raised bundles of cardiac muscle fibers that...
How are the papillary muscles attached to the atrioventricular valves?
Via the chordae tendineae
What structures do the chordae tendineae attach?
Atrioventricular valves to the papillary muscles
What is the etymology of papillary?
Latin, nipple
Which vessel emerges from the right ventricle?
Pulmonary TRUNK, which subsequently divides into the R and L pulmonary arteries
Which cardiac chamber has the thickest wall?
Left ventricle (up to 3x thicker than right ventricle)
Which valve separates the left ventrical from the aorta?
Aortic valve
What is the etymology of aorta?
Greek, the great artery, literally something hung or carried
What is the ductus arteriosus?
Temporary blood vessel that shunts blood from the pulmonary trunk into the aorta during fetal life
What is the remnant of the ductus arteriosus called and what two structures does it connect?
Ligamentum arteriosum, connects pulmonary trunk to aorta.
Which valve lies between the left atrium and the left ventricle?
Mitral valve
What are the semilunar valves?
Aortic and pulmonary valves
How many cusps are each semilunar valve made up of?
3 crescent moon shaped cusps
Where do the coronary arteries branch from?
Ascending aorta
What vessel emerges from the left ventricle?
Ascending aorta
What groove does the LAD artery lie in?
Anterior interventricular sulcus
Which coronary vessels arise from the ascending aorta?
The right and left coronary arteries arise from the ascending aorta.
Which two vessels does the left coronary artery divide to become?
Left anterior descending (LAD) artery and the circumflex artery
What two vessels does the right coronary artery normally give rise to?
Marginal branch

Posterior descending artery (PDA) in 80-85% of people

Posterior descending artery also called posterior interventricular artery
What structures of the heart does the left anterior descending (LAD) artery/ anterior interventricular artery supply?
Anterior walls of both left and right ventricles
What structures of the heart does the circumflex artery supply?
Left atrium, left ventricle
What structures of the heart does the right coronary artery immediately supply?
Right atrium
In what percentage of people does the posterior descending artery branch from the right coronary artery?
80-85%
Which coronary vessel/vessels supply the left ventricle?
Circumflex artery, LAD artery, PDA
Which coronary vessel/vessels supply the left atrium?
Circumflex artery
Which coronary vessel/vessels supply the right ventricle?
LAD artery, PDA, marginal branch
Which coronary vessel/vessels supply the right atrium?
Right coronary artery
What structure does the marginal branch supply?
Right ventricle
Which vessel empties deoxygenated blood from the coronary circulation into the right atrium?
Coronary sinus
What are the three principle veins of the coronary circulation?
Great cardiac vein (runs up anterior interventricular sulcus)

Middle cardiac vein (runs up posterior interventricular sulcus)
Which vessel runs alongside the posterior descending artery in the posterior interventricular sulcus?
Middle cardiac vein
Which vessel runs up the anterior interventricular sulcus alongside the LAD artery?
Great cardiac vein
Where does the small cardiac vein run?
Alongside the marginal branch in the right ventricle