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55 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What type of reflex does the ANS use to control and modify organ function in an involuntary fashion?
visceral
What nervous system is critical for maintaingin homeostasis?
ANS
Clinically what system is the targe of many drugs?
ANS
2 divisions of ANS
1) Sympathetic
2) Parasympathetic
NTs of sympathetic NS
1) ACH
2) Epi
3) NE
NTs of parasympathetic NS
ACH
Which NS of the ANS manages stressful conditions?
sympathetic
-parasympathetic manages relaxed state
Where does the sympathetic NS distribute?
1) synapse
2) blood
Where does the parasympathetic NS distribute?
only at synapse
A characteristic structure of the ANS are ____ which are clusters of nerve cell soma outside CNS.
ganglia
compare pathways of somatic and autonomic nervous system
very different
In what NS do unmyelinated terminal neurons (post-ganglionic) create a diffuse response where many organs are effected at the same time?
ANS
_______ refers to how much SNS/PNS activity is occuring at a given time.
autonomic tone
NT at preganglionic synapse for both SNS and PNS
ACH
NT at postganglionic synapse for SNS and PNS
SNS- NE or EPI (sometimes ACH)
PNS- ACH
4 drugs that mimic EPI/NE to stimulate parts of SNS
1) Epinephrine
2) Methoxamine
3) Norepinephrine
4) Phenylephrine
locations of ganglia in PNS & SNS
PNS- target organ
SNS- Sympathetic Chain Ganglions
What is the NT in SNS and PNS ganglia?
ACH
The PNS stimulates body activities that occur while at rest by releasing ____ at target synapses.
ACH
Where do PNS nerves exit in CNS?
top or bottom
What nerve innervates thoracic and abdominal organs?
Vagus nerve
Where are the cranial exit points?
3) lacrimal g
7) pupillary m
9) salivary g
X=Vagus n.>jugular faramen>hypogastic plexus
Pelvic CNS exit point
S2-S4: -> Rectum, Bladder, & Genitals
2 main receptor classes of PNS
1) Nicotinic
2) Muscarinic
5 main receptor classes of SNS, Where are they found?
Alpha 1- stimulatory, lets you constrict smooth muscle
Alpha 2- inhibits neurons (sex)
Beta 1- heart, dilate smooth muscle (more calcium)
Beta 2- lung
Beta 3- fat
What NT a receptor does preganglionic SNS synapse require?
NT- ACH
receptor- nicotinic
____ glands are very special SNS structures b/c their post-ganglionic endings release EPI & NE diretly into the blood stream, NOT INTO THE SYNAPSE!
adrenal glands
location of adrenal gland
cortex
location of adrenal ganglion
medulla
2 catecholamines that adrenal medulla releases
85% adrenalin (EPI)
15% noradrenalin (NE)
What catecholamine would you die w/out if you were exposed to cold?
adrenalin (EPI)
Why do catecholamines effects last longer than ACH?
b/c catecholamines are destroyed more slowly
Norepinephrine and epinephrine occur everywhere ____ is.
blood
What does SLUD stand for?
Salivation
Lacrimation
Urination
Defication
Nicotine in tobacco stimulates andy nicotinic receptor for ____ regardless of location.
acetylcholine
The pupil controlled by the ANS is an ex. of _____by the PNS & SNS.
dual innervation
What is the actual pupillary diameter a balance of?
SNS and PNS effects
What happens to the pupil when the smooth muscle of the iris is relaxed?
it enlarges
In the SNS you want a ___ pupil so you can see better and fight better, you worry about injury to retina after the fight. SNS mediated contraction of the spoke-like smooth muscle facilitated this.
dilated
In the PNS, when resting you want ____ pupils to minimize potential injury to the retina.
narrow
Does the cerebral cortex have voluntary control of the ANS?
No, although the cortex can influence ANS function.
The cerebral cortex influences the ANS by modifying the function of special nuclei in the ____________.
hypothalamus
The hypothalamus modifies the function of nuclei in the _____.
brainstem
Nuclei in the _____ determine when most ANS output is sent out of the brain in tracts w/in the spinal cord or as cranial nerves.
brainstem
Urination & defication are ex. of the many autonomic reflexes that need only access to a section of the _____ and work independently of the brain.
spinal cord
2 types of sympathomimetic drugs
1) phenylephrine
2) albuterol
2 types of sympathetic NS blocking drugs
1) Propranolol
2) Yohimbine
3 types of parasympathomimetic drugs
1) nicotine
2) muscarine
3) atropine
____ is an alpha-1 receptor and helps a runny nose
phenylephrine
____ is a beta-2 receptor to open airways and helps asthma
albuterol
____ blocks beta-1 receptors in heart from being activated
propranolol
____ blocks alpha-2 receptors from creating IPSPs
yohimbine
____ is a nicotinic receptor with wide ranging effects.
nicotine
____ is a muscarinic receptor that constricts pupils.
muscarine
____ blocks muscarinic receptor in eye during eye exam
atropine