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78 Cards in this Set

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_____ modifies the way detector cells (rods & cones)send APs to the brain via the optive nerve (N2).
light
structure of retina from back of eye to front of eye (9)
1) sclera
2) choroid
3) pigment epithelium
4) rod & cone outer segments
5) rod & cone nuclei
6) bipolar cells
7) ganglion ells
8) nerve fibers to optic nerve
9) vitreous body
nm that rods, blue, green, & red cones absorb
blue cones- 420
rods- 500
green cones- 531
red cones- 558
Our eye has to regulate the amount of light reahing the retina for ________.
protection
To focus an image, the eye modifies the shape of the ______.
lens
2 things that modifie lens shape and help to focus the inverted image on the retina.
1) ciliary muscles
2) suspensory ligament
2 things that modifie pupil diameter and light access to retina to protect in strong light and help in dim light.
1) pupillary muscle
2) iris
part of eye that is your blind spot
optic disc
fovea centralis vs. peripheral vision
fovea centralis- center image
peripheral vision- low-resolution, serve mainly to alert of motion
What happens to visual acuity as image falls away from fovea centralis?
decreases
Do rods or cones occupie the fovea when you look at something directly?
cones
What is the sensitivity to light of cones at the convergence of the fovea?
less convergence
shape of lens to bring an inverted image of a distant object into focus on the retina
flat
lens ______ allows us to look at objects that are close.
accomadation
2 things that have a natural tension that pulls them tight toward the margin of the retina
1) suspensory ligament
2) ciliary muscles
_____ of ciliary muscle draws structures away from the edge of the retina, relaxing the suspensory ligaments which lets the elastic lens become...
constriction
Is trans-retinol formed in the light or dark?
light
Trans-retinol leads to the breakdown of _____
cyclic GMP
In dark, cGMP hyperpolarizes rod/cone membrane and _______ is released to bipolar cell.
inhibitory glutamate
In dark, bipolar cell is hyperpolarized by _____ (turned off)
glutamate
In light, trans-retinol is created and leads to ____ destruction.
cGMP
In light, the bipolar cell is not inhibited, so it sends _____ to ganglion cell.
EPSPs
In light, ganglion cell sends APs into _______.
optic nerve
What causes ganglion cells to send APs to the brain, light or dark?
light
Why do rods give better sensitivity?
Many rods converge on each bipolar cell and many bipolar cells conerge on each ganglion cells which allows extensive spatial summation.
function of lateral rectus
nerve?
abduction
Abducens Nerve 6
function of medial rectus
nerve?
adduction
Occulomotor Nerve 3
function of superior rectus
nerve?
elevation
Occulomotor Nerve 3
function of inferior rectus
nerve?
depression
occulomotor nerve 3
function of superior oblique
nerve?
depression/rotation
trochlear nerve 4
Which nerve has a unique pulley system?
trochelear nerve
function of inferior oblique
nerve?
elevation/rotation
occulomotor nerve 3
_____ is a disease of nearsightedness, Where is image located?
myopia
behind retina
____ is a disease of farsightedness, Where is image located?
hyperopia
infront of retina
____ is a disease of a non-uniform lens shape with a non-uniform image.
astigmatism
parts of eye stroke effects
tracts and areas
_____ is a disease of elevated occular pressure and reduced blood supply to retina.
glaucoma
_____ is a disease of precipitate inside lens (cloudy) due to glaucoma, UV light, smoking, and/or diabetes.
cataracts
____ is a disease where most retinal blood supply is lost from choroid, so detachment causes ischemia/infarct.
detached retina
_____ is a disease of oxidative or UV injury to the macula densa (fovea centralis)
mascular degeneration
Our sense of hearing and equilibrium is dependent on displacements of a fluid called ______ and hair cells to detect the movement.
endolymph
In hearing, Sound is directed to the tympanic membrane and converted to displacements of endolymph by the _____.
stapes
In hearing, endolymph displacements occur at frequency specific locations in the _____.
cochlea
In hearing,Localized displacements create site specific APs in hair cells of ______ that travel to CNS in vestibulocochlear nerve. The AP is then delivered to the thalamus and primary auditory cortex.
Organ of Corti
In equilibrium, endolymph movement in semeicirular canals agitates hair cells in _________.
ampulla
In equilibrium, ____ shift position in saculle and utricleand agitate hair cells.
otolith crystals
APs sent to CNS in new fashion based on new position of haircells/otoliths.
cartilage of pinnae
hyalin
function of the _____ is to focus ans magnify sound into the external auditory meatus and ear drum.
tympanic membrane
The _______ consists of turning the pinnae at a slightly skewed angle to help improve your ability to localize the source of sounds.
curious dog effect
The _______ is an air filled cavity that functions to convert sound into motions in the Malleus>Incus/Stapes and finally into vibrations of the oval window of the cochlea.
middle ear
_____ covers the air cavity infront of the middle ear.
tympanum
2 muscles that help sensitive ear
1) stapedius
2) tensor tympani
obstruction of ____ causes an ear infection, pressure changes
eustacian tube
____ of cochlea is where sound is converted to perilymphatic and endolymphatic vibes.
oval window
____ is what is pushed in, must have a place to be pushed out.
round window
____ compresses the fluids of the cochlea.
stapes
Where can mechanosensitive hair cells be found?
cochlea
Why is the cochlea wound up like a snail?
so it can fit in skull
APs exit cochlea via the _________.
vestibulocochlear nerve
_____ creates compresssions of the scala vestibula that are transmitted down the length of the cochlea, with low frequency sounds passing the longest distance.
Stapes
specific cochlear locations compressions resonate at
1) organ of corti
2) tectorial membrane
-agitate site-specific hair cells that send APs to indicate that motion is occurring. (hearing)
loudness is an amplitude in units called _____.
decibeles
How many dB do you feel pain at?
120
How many dB can you damage the ear?
90
Pitch is a term for sound frequency that is measured in units called ______.
hertz
______ is low frequency=vibes in body
infrasonic
_____ is high fruquency heard by dog.
ultrasonic
2 problems concernign sound at work place and the legal system.
1) repetitive sound exposure
2) tone deafness
Our sense of balance comes from the inner ear's _______ and changes in the motion of fluids and or otoliths.
vestibular apparatus
3 primary structures for our sense of balance, motion, and equilibrium
1) semicircular canals/ampulla
2) utricle
3) saccule
______ is inertia createdd during acceleration/decceleration that causes the fluid to move in/through the semicircular canals along the angles of motion that are experienced.
dynamic motion
In ________ the utricle and saccule dtect whether changes in positon are maintained in a stationary manner (no inertia) for longer periods of time.
static equilibrium
detection of static changes in body _____.
orientation
position of saccule and utricle in static equilibrium
saccule- top
utricle-bottom
In static equilibrium, _____ (U or s) is sensitive site where hair cells are located.
macula
Which fluid is nonsensory, perilymph or endolymph?
perilymph
areas where perilymph fills spaces
1) semicircular canals/bones
2) scala vestibuli
3) tympani
areas where endolymph fills spaces
1) cochlear duct
2) semicircular canals
3) saccule
4) utricle