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110 Cards in this Set

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A saclike enlargement of a blood vessel caused by weakening of its wall
ANEURYSM
Spaces of the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles totaling about 150 ml of the 500 ml in a quiet breath (tidal volume)
ANATOMICAL DEAD SPACE
A pain the chest related to reduced coronary circulation due to cornoary artery disease (CAD) or spasms of vascular smooth muscle in coronary arteries.
Angina Pectoris
Group of diseases characterized by thickening of the walls of arteries and loss of elasticity.
ARTERIOSCLEROSIS
Progressive disease characterized by the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in the arteries walls
ATHEROSCLEROSIS
Phase of contraction
ATRIAL SYSTOLE
Phase of relaxation
ATRIAL DIASTOLE
Valves between the atrials and ventricles
ATRIOVENTRICULAR VALVES:
BICUSPID (MITRAL)
TRICUSPID
Cardiac cells with contract without stimulation
AUTORHYTHMICITY
Neuron capable of responding to changes in blood, air, or fluid pressure
BARORECEPTOR
Another part of the brain that coordinates the transition between inhalation and exhalation
Apneustic Area
The greatest percentage of CO2, about 70%, is transported in blood plasma as ...
bicarbonate ions
Exchange of negative ions, which maintain the electrical balance between blood plasma and RBC cytosol
chloride shift
Enzyme in blood that catalyzes the formation of carbonic acid (H2CO3) from water and carbon dioxide (CO2)
Carbonic Anhydrase
Sensory receptor that detects the presence of a specific chemical.
Chemoreceptor
The difference between a person's maximum cardiac output and cardiac output at rest.
Cardiac reserve
Most of the deoxygenated blood from the myocardium drains into a large vascular sinus in the coronary sulcus on the posterior surface of the heart.
A wide venous channel on the posterior surface of the heart that collects the blood from the coronary circulation and returns it to the right atrium.
Coronary sinus
Dome shaped skeletal muscle between the thoracic and abdominal cavities.
Diaphragm
A blood clot, bubble of air or fat from broken bones, mass of bacteria, or other debris or foreign material transported by the blood.
Embolus
ventricles contain 130 ml of blood volume at end of relaxation period.
End Diastolic Volume
Blood volume that is left after systole, about 60 ml.
End Systolic Volume
The layer of the heart wall, composed of endothelium and smooth muscle, that lines the inside of the heart and covers the valves and tendons that hold the valves open.
Endocardium
The 11 pairs of muscles involved in breathing that occupy the superficial layer. They elevate the ribs during inhalation to help expand the thoracic cavity.
External intercoastal muscles
The 11 pairs of muscles involved in breathing that occupy the intermediate layer of the intercoastal spaces. The draw adjacent ribs together during forced exhalation to help decrease the size of the thoracic cavity.
Internal intercoastal muscles
After SL valves close, there is a brief interval when ventricular blood volume does not change because all four valves are closed.
isovolumetric relaxation
Both the SL and AV valves are closed.
isovolumetric contraction
-The degree of stretch on the heart before it contracts.
preload
-The outermost covering of the blood vessels, consists of elastic & collagen fibers.
tunica externa
-is a muscular & connective tissue layer that displays the greatest variation among the differant vessel types.
tunica media
-forms the inner lining of blood vessels & is indirect contact w/the blood as it flows through the lumen.
tunica interna
-the circulatory system of fetus, exist only in the fetus, the lungs, kidneys & GI do not function until after birth.
fetus-circulation
-the combination of aortic & pul.valve.
semilunar valve
-is the passageway for the blood from the right Atrium into the R-ventricle.
tricuspid valve
-always take blood away from the heart
arteries
-always return blood to the heart.
veins
-is a prominant feature of interstial septum, also know as oval depression.
fossa ovale
-an in the interstial septum of the fetal heart that closes after birth.
foramen ovale
-is a series of ridges formed by raised bundles of cardiac muscle.
trabeculae carnea
muscle involved with inhalation
External Intercostals
muscle involved with exhalation
Internal Intercostals
A part of the respiratory center in the pons that continually sends inhibitory nerve impulses to the inspiratory area, limiting inhalation and facilitating exhalation.
Pneumotaxic Center
A receptor located in muscles, tendons, joints, or the internal ear that provides information about body position and movements
Proprioceptor
a valve between the aorta or the pulmonary trunk and a ventricle of the heart.
Semilunar valves
Failure of the cardiovascular system to deliver adequate amounts of oxygen and nutrients to meet the metabolic needs of the body due to inadequate cardiac output.
shock
A stationary clot formed in an unbroken blood vessel, usually a vein
Thrombus
air in the pleural cavities
Pneumothorax
the pressure of a specific gas in a mixture
partial pressure of a gas
the area in the lungs where gas exchange should take place but does not. Ex. emphysema where alveoli space has been lost.
Physiological Dead Space
the total volume of air inhaled and exhaled each minute
minute respiratory volume
a vessel that arises from an arteriole and supplies a network of capillaries
Metarteriole
atrioventricular valve of right side of heart
Tricuspid Valve
Blood backs up into the lungs; failure of valves to open
Mitral Stenosis
Blood flows back into the left atrium
Mitral Prolapse
Has three tunics; larger lumens; and have valves; contain the lowest pressure; carries blood towards the heart;
Veins
Has three tunics; mostly smooth muscle; small lumen; contains the highest pressure; carries blood away from the heart; thick tunica media
Arteries
regulate blood flow from artery into the capillary; has greater pressure than capillaries.
Arterioles
Where is the cross sectional area the greatest?
Capillary bed
Venules pressure is <,>,= Arterioles pressure
less than
low oxygen
hypoxia
high carbon dioxide
hypercapnia
Hormone sequence
BV decreases or blood flow to kidneys decreases;
kidneys release RENIN;
Renin CONVERTS angiotensiongen into Angiotension-1;
ACE-Angiotension Converting Enzyme in the lungs convert Angio-1 to Angiotensin II which increases BP;
Vasoconstriction of Arterioles;
Secretion of Aldosterone from Adrenal Cortex;
Increases re-absorption of sodium (active transport) and water (osmosis) by kidneys; therefore increasing blood volume and BP.
Adrenal medulla hormones;
increase rate and force of contractions;
vasoconstricts arterioles in skin and abdominal organs;
vasodilates arteriles of cardiac and skeletal muscles
Epinephrine and
Norepinephrine
causes vasoconstriction; increases the reabsorption of water by the kidneys; inserts water channels Aquaporin II-water can follow Na
ADH
short term mechanisms for regulating blood pressure include regulating what three things?
vessel diameter;
heart rate;
heart contractility
Two major arterial baroreceptors are located where?
carotid sinus;
arch of aorta
What is the effect of BP on the impulses sent to the brain, the effect on the PNS and SNS nervous systems and the resulting change in BP
I-BP-> I-IMPULSES-> I=PNS AND D SNS-> D BP
As a result of these changes in PNS AND SNS, list the effects on the heart and blood vessels
Heart:
Decrease in HR/contractility
Decrease in CO
Decrease in SV
Blood vessels:
Increase in arteriolar diameter
Decrease in resistance
Relaxation of vascular smooth muscle
Show the effect of decreasing BP
Decrease impulses
Decrease PNS
Increase SNS
Increase BP
What enzyme is released as a result of low blood pressure?
Renin
Two effects of Angiotension II
Vasoconstrictor
Goes to adrenal glands to release aldosterone
How does aldosterone increase blood volume
increase reabsorption of Na and water by kidneys
The main effect of aldosterone is....
opens up channels in collecting duct to allow Na to leave;
increases reabsorption of Na and water from kidney tubules
smallest of the blood vessels; thin tunica media; site of exchange of nutrients
capillaries
Pressure of a gas in a closed container is INVERSELY proportional to the volume.
Vol of container (inc., dec.,)then pressure ......
Boyle's Law
Volume of container increases, pressure decreases.
Volume of container decreases, pressure increases
During Tidal Volume, normal exhalation uses what muscles?
It is a passive process so no muscles contractions.
The muscles involved in inhalation
Diaphragm and External Intercostals
Histamine will .......... bronchioles........resistance........airflow....arterioles
constrict
increase
decrease
dilate
Epinephrine will ....... bronchioles.......resistance.......airflow during exercise.....arterioles
dilate
decrease
increase
constrict
acetylcholine will ..... bronchioles.......resistance......airflow
constrict
increase
decrease
The p exerted by each gas in a mixture, with no relation to any other p
partial pressure
carbon dioxide is transported by
dissolving;
bicarbonate ion;
bound to hemoglobin
What moves in to keep electrical gradient?
Cl-
Chloride Shift
site in brain stem that coordinates the transition between inhalation and exhalation. Inhibits inspiration.
Pneumotaxic Area
part of brain stem that coordinates the transition between inhalation and exhalation. In the lower pons, this area sends stimulatory impulses to the aspiratory area that activates it and prolongs inhalation.
Apneustic Area
A tricuspid insufficiency allows blood to flow back into the
right atrium
the amount of venous return is termed
preload
the maximum amount of air exhaled after a normal expiration is
ERV
The amount of air left in the lungs after a forced exhalation is
residual volume
after hyperventilating, indicate what happens to these factors;
pH, CO2; O2; ACIDITY
increase
decrease
increase
increase
the sum of tidal volume and inspiratory reserve volume
inspiratory capacity
TV + IRV=IC
Breathing in; the air pressure in the lungs is equal to the air pressure of the atmosphere at sea level.
Inspiration (Inhalation)
pigment that gives blood its red color; carries oxygen and carbon dioxide
hemoglobin
sum of residual volume and expiratory reserve volume
RV+ERV=FRV(Functional Residual Volume)
Breathing out; the pressure in the lungs is greater than atmosphere
Expiration (Exhalation)
emphysema or chronic bronchitis; is increased air way resistance due to obstruction or collapse of air ways
COPD Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
when CO2 enters the blood it is transformed into ..... by carbonic anhydrase
carbonic acid
collapse of part of lung
Atelectasis
the amount of air inhaled
Inspiratory Reserve Volume IRV
oxygen and hemoglobin bound together
Oxyhemoglobin (HbO2)
air that is left inside the lungs
residual volume RV
increases secretion of angiotensin 2 and aldosterone, which increases blood volume; increasing blood pressure
Renin
Three areas:
1; the medullary rhythmicity area in the medulla oblongata
2; the pneumotaxic area in the pons
3; the apneustic area, also in pons
Respiratory Center
the volume of one breath
Tidal Volume
the sum of inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, and expiratory reserve volume
Vital Capacity=IRV+ERV+TV
blood left after ventricle empty
Ventricle systole
blood left after ventricle fill
Ventricular Diastole
areas in the brain that regulate breathing, heart rate, and vasoconstriction
Vital centers
carries venous blood from gastrointestinal organs and spleen to liver
Hepatic Circulation
pressure between two pleural layers and cavity is always lower than atmospheric pressure
Negative Intrathoracic Pressure
medullary respiratory area; establishes the basic rhythm in breathing
Inspiratory Center