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107 Cards in this Set

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What are sensory receptors classified on?
the basis of location and type of stimulation
Name the types of location for sensory receptors
Exteroceptors, Interoceptors, Proprioceptors
Exteroceptors
stimulation arising outside of the body
Interoceptors
stimulation arising inside of the body
Name the examples of exteroceptors
touch, pain, and temperature
Name some examples of interoceptors
chemical messengers such as hormones and nutrient concentrations, stretching of tissues, and internal temperature
Proprioceptors
respond to internal stimuli
Where are proprioceptors found?
only in skeletal muscle, tendons, joints, ligaments and connective tissue covering bones and muscle
What do Proprioceptors do?
advise the brain of body movements by monitoring stretch
What controls knowing within your body that you are moving with your eyes closed?
Proprioceptors
Name the types of stimulus detected
Mechanoreceptors, Thermoreceptors, Photoreceptors, Chemoreceptors, Baroreceptors, Nociceptors
Mechanoreceptors
touch, pressure, vibrations
Thermoreceptors
temperature
Photoreceptors
light
Chemoreceptors
smell, taste, blood chemistry
Barorecptors
blood receptors
Nociceptors
pain
Name the 2 types of sensory receptors
unencapsulated and unencapsulated
Name the types of Unencapsulated sensory receptors
Free dendritic endings, modified free dendritic endings, root hair plexus
Where are Free dendritic endings found?
found in most body tissues and most dense in connective tissues
What type of cells are Modified free dendritic endings?
Merkle Cells
Where are Modified Free Dendritic Endings found?
in the basal layers of the epidermis
Name the types of Enscapulated
Meissner's corpuscles, Pacinian corpuscles, Ruffini's corpuscles, Muscle Spindles, Golgi tendon organs, Joint Kinesthetic receptors
Where are Meissner's corpuscles found?
in the dermal papillae reigon of hairless skin
Name some examples of Meissner's corpuscles
nipples, external genitalia, finger tips, soles of feet, and eyelids
What is another name for Meissner's corpuscles?
Tactile Corpuscles
What is Meissner's corpuscles used to sense?
fine discrimative touch
Where is Pacinian Corpuscles found?
in the dermis and the subcutaneous layer of skin
Name some examples of Pacinian Corpuscles
periosteum, misinteries, soles of feet, nipples, and external genitalia
What does Pacinian Corpuscles sense?
Vibration and Pressure when it's first applied
Where is Ruffini's Corpuscles located?
deep in the dermis, hypodermis, and in the joint capsules
What does Ruffinis Corpuscles sense?
continuous pressure that is deep or a strech
Where are muscle spindles found?
throughout the perimysium of skeletal muscle fiber.
What do Ruffinis Corpuscles sense?
when a muscle stretches and then initiates a reflex to resist
Where are Golgi Tendon Organs found?
in tendons
What do Golgi Tendon Organs sense?
muscle contraction and tendon stretch and inhibits the muscle to relax
What do Joint Kinesthetic receptors sense?
mechanoreceptors and nociceptors detects joint capsule stretch and know joint position and motion
What do nerves consist of?
parallel bundles of axons enclosed by connective tissue and coverings
Endoneurium
surrounds indiviual axons
Perineurium
surrounds groups of fibers bound into bundles called fascicles
Epineurium
surrounds all the fascicles to form a single nerve
Name the directions of transmission
Mixed Nerves, Sensory Nerves, Motor Nerves
Mixed Nerves
contain both sensory and motor fibers and can transmit impulses to and away from the CNS.
Sensory (afferent) nerves
contain sensory fibers that carry impulses only towards the CNS
Motor (efferent) nerves
contain sensory fibers that carry impulses only away from the CNS
When can regeneration occur in a nerve cell?
only sometimes when the nerve is cut or compressed
Wallerian Degeneration
The axon and myelin sheath at the injured site will disintegrate
How fast does an axon regenerate?
1.5 mm a day
How many cranial nerves are there?
12
How many spinal nerves are there?
31
What is the Olfactory nerve's function?
smell
What is the Optic nerve's function?
vision
What is the Oculomotor nerve's function?
Movement of eyelid and eyeball, shape of lens, contracts pupil size
What is the Trochlear nerve's function?
Movement of eye by the superior oblique
What is the Trigeninal nerve's function?
Muscles of chewing, general sensation of touch, pain, & temp of the face, and sensory fibers from teeth and tongue
What is the Abducen nerve's function?
Eyeball movement by the lateral rectus
What is the Facial nerve's function?
Facial expressions, secretion of saliva and tears, and sensory function for taste from anterior 2/3 of tongue
What is the Vestibulocochlear nerve's function?
Hearing and equilibrium
What is the Glossopharyngeal nerve's function?
Secretion of saliva, elevation of pharynx during swallowing, and taste
What is the Vagus nerve's function?
Smooth muscle contraction and relaxation of visceral organs and for the secretion of digestive fluids
What is the Accessory nerve's function?
Rotation of head and assists in swallowing
What is the Hypoglossal nerve's function?
Motor function of tongue for speech, swallowing, and chewing
Branches
structures passing through the intervertebral foramen
Dorsal Root
branch containing sensory fibers
Ventral root
branch containing motor fibers
Dorsal Ramus
deep muscles and skin of the dorsal surface of the trunk
Ventral Ramus
muscles and structures of the upper and lower limbs and the lateral and ventral trunk
Meningeal Branch
vertebrae, vertebral ligaments, blood vessels of the spinal cord, and meninges
Plexus
intertwining of several ventral rami
How many nerves are there in the cervical region?
8
Name the types of Cervical regional nerves
Cervical Plexus and Brachial Plexus
What type of nerves are Cervical plexus?
cutaneous nerves that supply the skin
Where do the Cervical Plexus innervate muscles?
some on the anterior neck
Phrenic Nerve
the single most important cervical nerve that innervates the diaphragm for breathing
Where are the Brachial plexus formed?
from the intermixing of the cervical nerves C5-C8
Where do the Brachial Plexus innervate muscles?
the upper limbs
Radial Nerve
the largest branch of the brachial plexus
What does the Radial Nerve produce?
it produces elbow extension, forearm supination, wrist and finger extension, and thumb abduction
Where is the Ulnar Nerve found?
in the Brachial Plexus
What does the Ulnar Nerve produce?
produces wrist and finger flexion and adduction as well as abduction of the medial fingers
How many nerves are there in the Thoracic reigon?
12
What does the Thoracic reigon form?
intercostals nerves
Intercoastal Nerves
that give rise to many cutaneous branches and innervate the intercostals muscles for breathing
How many Nerves are there in the Lumbar Reigon?
5
Where does the Lumbar reigon give rise to?
from spinal nerves L1-L4
Femoral Nerve
the largest terminal nerve of the lumbar plexus
What does the Femoral Nerve innervate?
the anterior muscles of the thigh (thigh flexors and knee extensors)
obturator nerve
innervates the adductor muscles of the leg
How many nerves are there in the sacral reigon?
5
What does the sacral plexus rise from?
spinal nerves L4-S4
sciatic nerve
largest branch of the sacral plexus
What does the Sciatic Nerve supply?
supplies the entire lower limb (leg) except the anteromedial thigh
What is the thickest and longest nerve in the body?
sciatic nerve
How many nerves are there in the Coccygeal Reigon?
1
What does the Coccygeal reigon innervate?
Innervates the tailbone and the muscles and skin of the perineum
reflex
a rapid, predictable motor response to a stimulus
Name the componets of reflex
Receptor, Sensory neuron, Integration Center, Motor Neuron, and Effector Cells
Receptor
site of the stimulus
Sensory Neuron
transmits afferent impulses to CNS
Name the types of Integration Center
Momosynaptic Reflex and Polysynaptic Reflex
Monosynaptic Reflex
single motor or sensory neuron
Polysynaptic Reflex
Multipule Interneurons
motor Neurons
conducts efferent impulses away from the CNS
Effector Neurons
Muscles or gland that responds to stimulus
What are reflexes classified as?
Somatic Reflexes and Autonomic reflexes
Somatic Reflexes
activate skeletal muscle
Autonomic (visceral) reflexes
activate cardiac and smooth muscles or glands