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117 Cards in this Set

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What is the function of the nervous system?
Input, Integration, and Motor Output, and to maintain homeostasis
What is the centeral nervous system composed of?
the brain and the spinal cord
What is the Peripheral Nervous System composed of?
Cranial and Spinal Nerves
The Cranial and Spinal nerves are used for what?
communication lines between the CNS and the rest of the body
Name the divisions between PNS
Sensory Divison and Motor Divison
What is another name for Sensory Divison?
Afferent
Sensory Division conducts impulses from where?
the sensory receptors to the CNS
Where are sensory receptors found?
within the somatic and visceral systems
Somatic
skin muscle joints
What is another name for Motor Divison
Efferent
Motor Divison conducts impulses from where?
there CNS to the effectors
Name the divisions of Motor Divisions
Somatic NS and Autonomic NS
Somatic Nervous System
voluntary system that conducts impulses from the central nervous system to skeletal muscles
Autonomic Nervous System
involuntary system that conducts impulses from the CNS to cardiac muscles smooth muscles and glands
Sympathetic NS
mobilizes the body durning emergency situations
"fight or flight"
Sympathetic NS
Parasympathetic NS
conserves energy and premotes non emergency functions
"resting and digesting"
Parasympathetic NS
What is densly packed and intertwined?
nervous tissue
What is Nervous tissue composed of?
neurons, neuroglial cells
Name the different types of Neuroglial cells in the CNS
Astrocytes, Microglia, Oligodendrocytes, and Ependymal
What CNS neuroglial cell makes up half of all neural volume?
Astrocytes
What CNS neuroglial cell is star shaped?
Astrocytes
What CNS neuroglial cell possess numerous projections with bulbous ends that cling to neurons and capillaries therefore they serve as connections between neurons and blood/nutrient supply.
Astrocytes
What CNS neuroglial cell Controls chemical environment around neurons
Astrocytes
How do Astrocytes Control chemical environment around neurons?
by buffering K+ in extracellular space or by recapturing neurotransmitters that were released in the synaptic clefts
What CNS neuroglial cell has highly branched processes
Microglia
What CNS neuroglial cell is ovid shaped?
Microglia
What CNS neuroglial cells act as macrophages that engulf microbes and dead neural cells
Microglia cells
What CNS neuroglial has few processes?
oligodendrocytes
What CNS neuroglial cells line up along thicker neuron fibers in the CNS and wrap their extensions around nerve fibers (myelin sheaths)
oligodendrocytes
What CNS neuroglial cells Line the central cavities of brain and spinal cord, creating a barrier between the CNS cavities and the tissues surrounding the cavities
ependmyal
What CNS neuroglial cells have cilia circulate the cerebrospinal fluid within the cavities of the CNS
ependmyal
Name the neuroglial cells in the PNS
Schwann and Satellite
What PNS neuroglial cell Forms the myelin sheath around large nerve fibers
Schwann
What PNS neuroglial cell acts as phagocytic cells that engulf damaged or dying nerve cells
Schwann
What PNS neuroglial cell surrounds the nerve cell body
Satellite
What PNS neuroglial cell aids in controlling chemical environment about the neuron
Satellite
Name the characteristics of a neuron
Excitable, longivity, high metabolic rate, large, amitotic
Why do neurons have a high metabolic rate?
because they cannot survive without O and Glucose
Why are neurons amitotic?
because they lose their ability to divide after they assume the role of communication lines
What is another word for cell body?
perikaryon or soma
Where are most neuron cell bodies located?
CNS
Nuclei
clusters of cell bodies in the CNS
Ganglia
clusters of cell bodies in the PNS
Nissl Bodies
large numbers of rough ER within the cell bodies
Tracts
cellular processes in the CNS
Nerves
cellular processes in the PNS
Name the parts of a neuron
cell body and processes
What posseses a large surface area?
dendrites
What do dendrites do?
Receive chemical signals as well as conduct electrical signals towards the cell body
Graded potentials
electrical signals that dendrites receive
How many axons are there in one neuron?
one
Collateral Axons
axons that may branch extensively
Where do axons transmit their impulses?
away from the cell body toward the axon terminal
axolemma
The plasma membrane surrounding the axon
axon hillock
the area of the axon that the nerve impulse is generated
What are nerve impulses generated by?
axons only
myelin sheath
a nerve impulse is covered with a whitish, fatty (protein-lipoid), that is segmented
What does the myelin sheath do?
protects and electrically insulates fibers from one another
what is a Myelinated fiber's speed?
fast
Where is myelinated fiber formed?
White matter of the nervous tissue
What is the speed of Unmyelinated fibers?
slow
Where are Unmyelinated fibers formed?
in grey matter of the nervous tissue
Schwann cells form what?
Myelin Sheaths
neurilemma
The exposed portion of the Schwann cell
Nodes of Ranvier
Gaps between each Schwann cell that aids in impulse transmission
Name the structural classification of a neuron
Multi-polar neurons, Bipolar neurons, Unipolar neuron
Multi Polar Neurons
three or more processes (many dendrites and a single axon) extending from the cell body
Bi Polar Neurons
two processes (one axon and one dendrite) extend from opposite sides of the cell body
Unipolar Neurons
one process extends form the cell body and forms a central and peripheral process
What is the most common type of structural classifications of neurons?
Multi-polar Neurons
What is the major neuron type of CNS
Multi-polar Neurons
What is type of structural classifications of neurons is most rare in adults?
Bipolar Neurons
Where can bipolar neurons be found in an adult?
in the retina and olfactory mucosa
In a Unipolar Neuron, what is associated with the secretory region (output)?
central process
In a Unipolar Neuron, what is associated with the sensory region (input)?
peripheral process
Name the functional classification of a neuron
Sensory neurons, Motor neurons, Association neurons
What do Sensory Neurons transmit?
transmit impulses from sensory receptors towards the CNS
What is another name for Sensory Neurons?
(afferent)
What is another name for Motor Neurons?
(efferent)
What is another name for Association Neurons?
(interneurons)
What kind of sturctural classification is found in Motor Neurons?
Multipolar
In Motor Neurons, where are the cell bodies found in multipolar neurons?
CNS
In Motor Neurons, what is formed in multipolar neurons?
neuromuscular junctions with effector cells
What do Association Neurons transmit?
impulses within CNS (usually between sensory and motor)
Where are Association Neurtons found?
only in the CNS
What structural classification is found in Association Neurons?
mostly multi polar
Association Neurons make up how much of all neurons?
99%
Passive Channels
protein channels that are always open allowing certain ions to pass through
What are Passive Channels responsible for?
These gates are responsible for maintaining resting membrane potentials
What is another name for Passive Channel?
Leakage Channel
Active Channel
proteins channels that open and close in response to various signals
What are the signals that open Active Channels?
Chemically Gated ion channels and Voltage Gated ion Channels
What is another name for Active Channels?
Gated Channels
Chemically Gated Ion Channel
opens when the appropriate neurotransmitter (chemical) binds to the receptor site on the protein
Voltage Gated Ion Channel
open and close in response to changes in the membrane potential
Where are voltage gated ion channels found?
not near the neurotransmitter but the axon helic
when does Resting Membrane Potential only occur?
the bulk solutions inside and outside the cell are electrically neutral
In Resting Membrane Potential, what sides are K+ ,NA+, +, - ??
NA and + are on the outside and K and - are on the inside
Saltatory Conduction
Myelin, quickly, on the myelinated nerves causes the local depolarization to jump to the next Node of Ranvier and then from node to node
continuous conduction
On unmyelinated nerves, local depolarizations must spread to sites immediately adjacent to each other; the process is slow
Presynaptic Neuron
The neuron conducting the impulse towards the synapse
Postsynaptic Neuron
The neuron transmitting the impulse away form the synapse
How do presynaptic gaps and postsynaptic gaps communicate?
Electrical and Chemical Synaps
Electrical synapses
where the cell membranes of the two neurons are actually connected by protein channels that allow ions from the presynaptic neuron to flow into the postsynaptic neuron so that the propagation of the action potential is continued in the next neuron
Chemical synapses
where a synaptic cleft is formed between the two neurons and the presynaptic neuron releases neurotransmitters that stimulate an action potential in the postsynaptic neuron
What type of synaps only uses voltage gated channels?
Electrical
Name the categories of neurotransmitters
Acetylcholine, Biogenic amines, Amino acids, Peptides, Others not fully understood
Name all the Biogenic Amines
Dopamine, Norepinephrine, epinephrine, Serotonin, Histamine
Name the Biogenic Amines that come from Tyrosine
Dopamine, Norepinephrine, and epinephrine
Name the Biogenic Amines that come from Tryptophan
Serotonin
Name the Biogenic Amines that come from histidine
Histamine
Name the Amino Acids
GABA, Glutamate, Aspartate, Glycine
What does GABA stand for?
gamma-aminobutyric acid
Name the Poly Peptides
Endorphins and enkephalins, Somatostatin, Cholecystokinin
Name the neurotransmitters that are not fully understood
Carbon monoxide, Nitric oxide, ATP