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161 Cards in this Set

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Agonist
a muscle that provides the major force for producing a specific movment
What is another name for the Agonist?
"prime mover"; primary muscle
Name an example of an Agonist.
bicept
Antagonist
muscles that oppose or reverse a particular movement
Name an example of an Antagonist.
Tricept
Synergists
muscles that help the primary movers
Name some ways that a synergist help the primary movers.
1. Adding a little extra force to the same movement 2. reducing undesireable or unneccarymovements that might occur as the prime movers contract
Name an example of Synergists
corocobrachialis
Fixator
when a synergist immobilizes a bone or a muscles origin
Name the different naming styles of muscles
location, shape, size, directions of muscle fibers, 3 of origins, location of attachments, action
Name the muscles named by location
Temporalis and Intercostals
Temproalis
overlies the temporal bone
Intercoastals
muscles in between the ribs
Name the muscles named by the shape
Deltoid and Trapezuis
Deltoid
refers to the triangular shape
Trapezius
refers the muscle being shaped like a trapezoid
Name the muscles named by size
Maximus, minimus, longus, Brevis
Maximus
the largest
Minimus
the smallest
Longus
long
Brevis
short
Name an example of longus
fibularius longus
Name an example of Brevis
Extensor Pollicis Brevis
Name the muscles named by direction of fibers
Rectus, transversus, oblique
Rectus
straight
Name an example of Rectus
Retus Femoris
Transversus
Right angle to the axis
Name an example of Transversus
Transversus Abdominus
Oblique
Diagonal
Name an example of oblique
superior oblique of the eye
Name the muscle named by the number of origins
Bicepts, tricepts, and Quadricepts
Name the muscle named by the location of attachments
sterno, cleido, mastoid
Cleido
clavicle
Mastoid
mastoid process of the temporal
Name the muscles named by the action
flexor, extensor, adductor, supinator
Name an example of a flexor
Flexor digitorium
Name an example of an extensor
extensor carpii ulnarus
What muscle is used to raise your eyebrows?
Frontalis
What muscle is used for chewing?
Temoralis
Name the types of fascle arrangments
Circular, Convergent, Parallel, Fusiform, Pennate
Circular
when the facicles are arranged in concentric rings
Name an example of circular
obicular oris
Convergent
when the muscles have a broad origin and the fasicicles converge to a single tendon or insertion
What is another name for circular
sphincter
Name an example of Convergent
pectoralis major
Parallel
the long axis of the fasicicles fun parallel to the long axis of the muscle; strap like muscle
Name an example of Parallel
sartorius
Fusiform
spindle shaped with a expanded midsection
Name an example of fusiform
bicepts brachii
Pennate
the fascicles are short and they attacyh obliquely to a central tendon that runs the length of the muscle
Name the types of Pennate
Unipennate, Bipennate, and Multipennate
Unipennate
the fascicles insert into only one side of the tendon
Name an example of Unipennate
Extensor Digitorium Longus
Bipennate
Fascicles insert into the tendon from opposite sides so that the muscle's "grain" resembles a feather
Name an example of Bipennate
Rectus femoris
Multipennate
Arrangement looks like many feathers situated side by side
What does the operation of most skeletal muscles involve?
the use of a leverage and a lever system
Lever
a ridged bar that moves on a fixed point
Fulcrum
the fixed point in a lever
Effort
the applied force on a fulcrum
Load
the resistance
What are joints, bones and muscles in relation to levers?
joints are the fulcrum, the bones are the levers, and your muscles provide the effort
Name the ways the levers can operate.
Mechanical Advantage and Mechanical Disadvantage
Mechanical Advantage
the load is close to the fulcrum and the effort is applied far from the fulcrum
What way of operation requires minimal effort?
Mechanical Advantage
Mechanical Disadvantage
The load is far from the fulcrum and the effort is applied near the fulcrum
What way of operation is used for power?
Mechanical Advantage
What way of operation is used for speed?
Mechanical Disadvantage
What way of operation is used to move the load farther and faster?
Mechanical Disadvantage
First Class Lever
load, fulcrum, effort
Name an example of first class lever
sissors
Second Class Lever
fulcrum, load, effort
Name an example of second class lever
wheel barrow
Third Class Lever
load, effort, fulcrum
Obicularis Oculi
closes eyelids
Obicluaris Oris
closes and purses the lips
Risorius
pulls corners of lips laterally
Zygomatic Major and Minor
pulls corners of lips in ward
Buccinator
tone cheek, suckling and whistling
Name an example of First Class Lever on the human body
Capitis
Name an example of Third Class Lever on the human body
Bicept
Platysma
deppresses mandible and pulls corners of lips down
Levator Palpebrae
Raises Eyelids (innervated by CN 3, the oculomotor nerve )
Superior, medial, and inferior rectus
moves the eye up down and all around
Lateral Rectus
moves the eye laterally
Superior Oblique
eye ball downward and outward rotation
Inferior Oblique
eyeball upward and outward rotation
Masseter
Strongly elevates mandible or closes jaws
Pterygoid
jaws swing side to side
Occipitals
pulls scalp posteiorly
Sternocleiodmastoid
together: flex forward; singly: tilt and rotate
Sternohyoid
depresses layrnix and hyoid bone
Capitis Group
assisted by upper trapezius if the sholders are stable: extends head on the neck; singly rotates
Erector Spinae Group
extending down vertebrea to maintain upright posture
Rectus Abdominus
Flex and rotates lumbar, fix and depresses ribs, stablizes pelvis
External Abdominal Oblique
aid in trunk rotation and lateral flextion
Internal Abdominal Oblique
aid in trunk rotation and lateral flextion
Transvese Abdominis
compresses abdominal contents
Linea Alba
a tendinous seam that runs from the sternum to the pubic symphsis
Trapezius
upper portion elevates while lower portion depresses
Serratus Anterior
Rotates Scapula
Pectoralis Minor
pulls the scapula anterior
Levator Scapula
elevates the scapula
Rhomboideus Major and Minor
elevates and adducts the scapula
Pectoralis Major
flexes, adducts, and medially rotates
Lastissimus Dorsi
extends, adducts, and medially rotates
Deltoid
abducts
Supraspinatus
abducts
Infraspinatus
Laterally rotates
Subscapularis
medially rotates
Teres Major and Minor
extends, adducts, and medially rotates
Coracobrachialis
flexes and adducts
Brachialis
flexes
Brachioradialis
flexes
Bicepts Brachii
Flexes and supinates
Tricept Brachii
extends
Supinator
Supinates Forearm
Pronator Teres
pronates forearm
Flexor Carpi Radialis
flexes and abducts hand at the wrist
None
Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
flexes and adducts hand at the wrist
Extensor Carpi Radialis
extends and adducts hand at the wrist
Extensor Carpi Ulnaris
extends and adducts hand at the wrist
Palmaris Longus
Flexes the wrist and tenses the skin and fascia of the palm
Flexor Digitorium Superficialis and Flexor Digitorum Profundus
flexes fingers at metacarpo-phlangeal joints and interphlangeal joints
Interosseous
intrinsic: abducts fingers (back side of hand)
Lumbricals
intrinsic: adducts fingers (palm side of hand)
Name the muscles of the thumb
Extensor Pollicis Brevis and Longus, and adductor pollicis
Diaphram
pushes abdominal contents down and enlarges the thoracic cavity vertically
External Intercoastals
raise and spread ribs to enlarge the thoracic cavity during inspiration
Internal Intercostals
forced experations only
Coccygeus
tone that supports pelvic organs
Levator Ani and External anal sphincter
controls bowel elimination
Ili and psoas major (Iliopsoas)
flex
Gluetus Maximus
Extends and laterally rotates
Gluetus Medius
abducts and medially rotates
Adductor Longus and Mangus
adducts and flexes
Pectineus
adducts, f;exes, and medially rotates the thigh
Tensor Fasciae Latae
Flexes and Abducts the thigh (synergist)
Gracilis
flexes the knee and adducts the femur
Sartorius
flexes knee and femur, laterally rotates the femur
Quadricepts Femoris
extends leg at the knee
Rectus Femoris
Crosses two joints and also flexes the hip
Vastus Lateralis, Vastus Intermedius, and Vastus Medialis
Flexes Leg and Extends the thigh
Hamstring Group
Flexes Leg and Extends the thigh
Name the muscles in the Hamstring Group
Semitendinosus, semimembranosus, and bicept femoris
Gastrocnemius
Plantar flexes the foot
Soleus
Plantar flexes the foot
Tibialis Anterior
Dosiflexes the foot
Tibialis Posterior
inverts the foot
Fibularis Longus and Fibularis Brevis
everts the foot
Flexor Digitorium Longus
Flexion
Extensor Digitorium Longus
Extends
Flexor Hallicus Longus
flexes at the great toe
Myathenia Gravis
because of the loss of Ach the upper eyelids drop, theres a diffuculty of swallowing and talking, and generalized muscle weakness
Rigor Mortis
the ATP is depleted from cells, actin and myosin become irreversibly cross-linked, producing stiffness
Atrophy
degeneration and loss of muscle mass due to disuse
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
an inderited muscle destroying desiese caused by the lack of dystrphonin within the cytoplasm. Victims rarely live beyond their 20s
Hernia
Protrusion of an abdominial organ through a weak point in the muscles of the abdominal wall
Myalgia
muscle pain
Fibromyositis
chronic inflammation of a muscle and it's connective tissues coverings and tendons
Strains
commonly called a "pulled muscle" and is the result of excessive streching and possible tearing of a muscle and or tendon