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346 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Children grow rapidly between ages __ and __ but less quickly than in infancy and toddlerhood
3 and 6
Both boys and girls typically grow __ to __ inches a year during early childhood and gaian __ to __ lbs annually
they grow 2 to 3 inches a year during early childhood and gain 4 to 6 lbs annually
use of fluoride and improved dental care have reduced that incidence of tooth dcay since the 1970 but disadvantage children still
have more untreated cavities
emotional maltreatment
action or inaction that may cause behavioral, cognitive, emotional, or mental disorders.
To avoid excess weight and later cardiac problems, young children should:
get less than 10% of their total fat from saturated fats.
Permanent teeth begin to appear at about age:
Young children catch on average __ to __colds per year.
7 to 8
What percentage of U.S. children live with smokers?
between 40% and 50%
__________objects: Objects used repeatedly by a child as bedtime companions.
Combinations of motor skills that permit increasingly complex activities.
preference for using a particular hand.
About 74 precent of early death occure in poor, rural regions of sub sarharan Africa and South Asia where...
nutritiuon is inadiquate, water is unsafe, and sanitary facilities are laking.
Stages of are production, which appera to reflect brain decelopment and fine motor coordination are....
the scribbling stage, shape stage, design stage, and pictorial stage.
Handedness is usually evident by age
3, reflecting dominance by one hemisphere of the brain
Who named early childhood the preoperational stage
jean Piaget
What is the preoperational stage
In piaget's theory, second major stage of cognitive development, in which children become more sophisticated in their use of symbolic thought but are not yet able to use logic
preoperational last from approximately
ages 2-7
according to paget, children cannot think logically until the stage of
concrete operations in middle childhood (chap 3)
tendency to attribute life to objects that are not alive
autobiographical memory
memory of specific events in one's own life.
In Piaget's theory, tendency of preoperational children to focus on one aspect of a situation and neglect others.
Piaget's term for awareness that two objects that are equal according to a certain measure remain equal in the face of perceptual alteration so long as nothing has been added to or taken away from either object
In Piaget's terminology, to think simultaneously about several aspects of a situation.
dual representation hypothesis
proposal that children under the age of 3 have difficulty grasping spatial relationships because of the need to keep more than one mental representation in mind at the same time.
Piaget's term for inability to consider another person's point of view.
emergent literacy
preschoolers' development of skills, knowledge, and attitudes that underlie reading and writing.
ability to put oneself in another person's place and feel what that person feels.
episodic memory
long-term memory of specific experiences or events, linked to time and place.
fast mapping
process by which a child absorbs the meaning of a new word after hearing it once or twice in conversation.
generic memory
memory that produces scripts of familiar routines to guide behavior.
Piaget's term for a preoperational child's failure to understand that an operation can go in two or more directions.
the practical knowledge needed to use language for communicative purposes.
preoperational stage
In Piaget's theory, the second major stage of cognitive development (approximately from age 2 to age 7), in which children become more sophisticated in their use of symbolic thought but are not able to use logic.
private speech
talking aloud to oneself with no intent to communicate.
ability to reproduce material from memory
ability to recognize a previously encountered stimulus.
general remembered outline of a familiar, repeated eventused, used to guide behavior
social cognition
ability to understand that others have mental states and to judge their feelings and intentions.
social interaction model
model, based on Vygotsky's sociocultural theory, which proposes that children construct autobiographical memories through conversation with adults about shared events.
social speech
speech intended to be understood by a listener
symbolic function
In Piaget's terminology, ability to use mental representations (words, numbers, or images) to which a child has attached meaning.
theory of mind
awareness and understanding of mental processes.
Piaget's term for a preoperational child's tendency to mentally link particular experiences, whether or not there is logically a causal relationship
Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, Revised (WPPSI-R)
individual intelligence test for children ages 3 to 7, which yields verbal and performance scores as well as a combined score.
Lindsey sees the moon in the sky and tells her mother that "Mr. Moon" is saying, "I want you to go to bed soon". Which immature aspect of preoperational thought does this exemplify?
The last number-name used is the total number of items being counted. Which principle of counting is this?
Piaget's term for the inability to transfer learning about one type of conservation to other types is called:
horizontal decalage.
The view that grammatical development enables children to formulate concepts about certain states of mind is called:
linguistic determinism
Intelligence test scores of children in industrialized countries have:
risen steadily since testing began.
The zone of proximal development focuses on tasks that:
children are almost ready to accomplish on their own.
Egocentric communication, reading aloud, and inaudible muttering are types of:
private speech
Many children who speak late:
eventually catch up
children who attended compensatory preschool programs?
Their overall performance does not equal the performance of middle-class children.
preoperational stage: In Piaget's theory, the second major stage of cognitive development (approximately from age 2 to age 7), in which children become more sophisticated in their use of ________thought but are not yet able to use_______.
symbolic or logic
In Piaget's terminology, ability to use mental representations (words, numbers, or images) to which a child has attached meaning.
symbolic function
In Piaget's terminology, a limitation of preoperational thought that leads the child to focus on one aspect of a situation and neglect others, often leading to illogical conclusions.
In Piaget's terminology, to think simultaneously about several aspects of a situation; characteristic of operational thought.
conservation: In Piaget's terminology, awareness that two objects that are equal according to a certain measure (such as length, weight, or quantity) remain equal in the face of_________alteration (for example, a change in shape) so long as nothing has been added to or taken away from either object.
In Piaget's terminology, a limitation on preoperational thinking consisting of failure to understand that an operation can go in two or more directions.
transduction: In Piaget's terminology, a preoperational child's tendency to mentally link particular experiences, whether or not there is logically are relationship.
In Piaget's terminology, inability to consider another person's point of view; a characteristic of preoperational thought.
animism: Tendency to attribute______to objects that are not______.
theory of mind: Awareness and understanding of mental
pragmatics: The practical knowledge needed to use language for_________purposes.
_______speech: Speech intended to be understood by a listener.
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale: Individual intelligence test used with children to measure memory,__________orientation,and practical judgment.
Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence--Revised (WPPSI-R): Individual childhood intelligence test for children ages 3 to 7, which yields verbal and scores as well as a combined___________ score.
Piaget's three-mountain task was designed to study _______.
The ability to plan and carry out a goal-directed mental activity is called:
executive function.
Most children have a script for going to a birthday party. T or F
An IQ score does not represent a fixed quantity of inborn intelligence. T or F
The realization that words are composed of distinct sounds is called
phonemic awareness.
Research supports lengthening the school year to increase competence in math and reading. T or F
Model based of Vygotsky Socialcultural theory, in which propose that children construct autobiographical memories through conservation with adults about shared memories
Social interaction model
Simon asks his mother about the elephants they saw on their trip to the circus several months earlier.
Use of symbols,
Children do not need to be in sensorimotor contact with an object, person, or event in order to tink about it.
Rolf pretends that a slice of apple is a vacuum cleaner "vrooming" across the kitchen table
Use of symbols,
children can imagine that objects or people have properties other than those they acually have.
Seeing a ball roll from behind a wall, Aneko looks behind the wall for the person who kicked the ball
Understanding of cause and effect,
children realize thaqt events have causes
Antonio knows that his teacher is dressed up as a pirate but is still his teacher underneath the costume.
understanding of identities,
Children are aware that superficial alterations for not change that nature of things.
Rosa sorts that pine cones she collected on a nature walk into two piles according to their size: bis and little.
Ability to classify,
children organize object, people, and events into meaningful categories.
Lindsay shares some candy with her friends counting to make sure that each girl gets the same amount
understanding of numbers,
children can count and edeal with quantities.
Emilio tries to comfort his friend when he sees that his friend is upset.
children become more able to imaging how others might feel.
Blanca wants to save some cookis for herslf, so she hides them from her brother in a pasta box. she knows her cookies will be safe there because her brother will not look in a place where he doesn't expect to find cookies.
Chilren become more aware of mental activity and the functioning of the mind
Timothy teases his younger sister that he has more juice that she does because his juice box has been poured into a tall, skinny glass, but her has been poured into a short wide glass.
Centration: inability to decenter,
Children focus on one aspect of a situation and neglect others.
Timothy does not realize that the juice in each glass can be poured back into the juice box from which it came, contradicting his claim that he has more than his sister.
child's failure to understand that an operation can go in two or more directions.
In the conservation task, Timothy does not understand that transforming the shape of a liquid does not change the amount
Focus on tstates rather than transformation,
Children fail to understand that significance of the transformation between situation
Sarah was mean to her brother. Then her brother got sick, Sarah concludes that she made her brother sick.
Transductive reasoning,
Children do not us deductive or inductive reasoning; sistead they jump form one particulr to another and see cause where none exists
Kara doesn't realize that she needs to turn a book around so that her fathert can see the picture she is asking him to explain toher. instead she holds the book directly in front of her where only she can see it.
Children assume everyone else thinks, perceives, and feels as they do.
Amanda says that spring is trying to come but winter is saying, "I won't go! I won't go!"
Children attribute life to objects not alive.
Cortney is confused by a sponge made to look like a rock, She states that it looks like a rock and it really is a rock.
Inability to distinguish appearance from reality,
Children confuse what is really with outward appearance.
infromation-processing theorists think a memory as a filling system that has tree steps or processes:
encoding, storage, and retrieval.
process by which information is prepared for long-term storage and later retrieval
Retention of memories for future use.
process by which information is accessed or recalled from memory
Information-processing models depict the brain as containing three store houses:
Sensory memory, working memory and long-term memory
Initial, brief temporary storage of sensory information
Sensory memory
Working memory
Short-term storage of information being actively processed
Storage of vitually unlimited capacity that holds information for very long periods
Lon-term memory
____ and _____ are types of retrieval
recognition and recall
Forming childhood memories through ____, ____, and _____.
Generic memory, which produces a script, epicsodic memory, and autobiographical memory
At 3 the average child knows and can use ____ to ____ words
900 to 1,000 words
By age 6, a child typically has an expressive speaking vocabulary of _____ word and understand more than ______.
2,600, smf 20,000
With the help of formal schooling a child's passive or receptive, Volcabulary will quadruple to _____ words
behavior intended to help others out of inner concern and without expectation of external reward.
Baumrind's term for parenting style emphasizing control and obedience.
Baumrind's terms for parenting style blending respect for a child's individuality with an effort to instill social values.
constructive play
in Piaget's and Smilansky's terminology, the second cognitive level of play, involving use of objects or materials to make something.
corporal punishment
use of physical force with the intention of causing pain, but not injury, to correct or control behavior.
methods of molding children's character and of teaching them self-control and acceptable behavior.
functional play
in Piaget's and Smilansky's terminology, the lowest cognitive level of play, involving repetitive muscular movements.
gender constancy
awareness that one will always be male or female. Also called sex-category constancy.
gender identity
awareness, developed in early childhood, that one is male or female.
gender roles
behaviors, interests, attitudes, skills, and traits that a culture considers appropriate for males or for females.
gender stereotypes
preconceived generalizations about male or female role behavior.
gender-schema theory
theory, proposed by Bern, that children socialize themselves in their gender roles by developing a mentally organized network of information about what it means to be male or female in a particular culture.
socialization process by which children learn appropriate gender roles.
hostile aggression
aggressive behavior intended to hurt another person.
ideal self
the self one would like to be
in Freudian theory, the process by which a young child adopts characteristics, beliefs, attitudes, values, and behaviors of the parent of the same sex.
inductive techniques
disciplinary techniques designed to induce desirable by appealing to a child's sense of reason and fairness.
initiative versus guilt
Erikson's third crisis in psychosocial development, in which children balance the urge to pursue goals with moral reservations that may prevent carrying them out.
instrumental aggression
aggressive behavior used as a means of achieving a goal.
overt aggression
aggression that is openly directed at it target.
Baumrind's term for parenting style emphasizing self-expression and self-regulation.
power assertion
disciplinary strategy designed to discourage undesirable behavior through physical or verbal enforcement of parental control.
pretend play
in Piaget's and Smilansky's terminology, the third cognitive level of play, involving imaginary people or situations; also called fantasy play, dramatic play, or imaginative play.
prosocial behavior
any voluntary behavior intended to help others.
real self
the self one actually is.
relational aggression
aggression aimed at damaging or interfering with another person's relationships, reputation, or psychological well-being; also called covert, indirect, or psychological aggression.
representational mappings
in neo-Piagetian terminology, the second stage in development of self-definition, in which a child makes logical connections between aspects of the self but still sees these characteristics in all-or-nothing terms.
sense of self; descriptive and evaluative mental picture of one's abilities and traits.
cluster of characteristics used to describe oneself.
single representations
in neo-Piagetian terminology, first stage in development of self-definition, in which children describe themselves in terms of individual, unconnected characteristics and in all-or-nothing terms.
sense of capability to master challenges and achieve goals.
Judgment a person makes about his or her self-worth.
social cognitive theory
Albert Bandura's expansion of social learning theory; holds that children learn gender roles through socialization.
withdrawal of love
disciplinary strategy that may involve ignoring, isolating, or showing dislike for a child.
The awareness of one's femaleness or maleness and all it implies in a particular society is called:
gender identity.
Perspective of gender development includes the belief that gender-typing is a result of interpretation, evaluation, and internalization of society standards?
socialization approach
What type of play involves symbolic function and emerges near the end of the sensorimotor stage?
pretend play
According to Parten's categories of play, the least social category is:
unoccupied behavior
Shaking a child is an example of:
corporal punishment
_____ parents are more detached and less warm than other parents.
in regards to prosocial behavior?
Motives for prosocial behavior become more egocentric as children grow older.
Boys tend to engage in _____ aggression
In comparison to children with siblings, the only child is:
more intelligent.
Popular preschoolers:
avoid conflict.
self_________: Sense of self; descriptive and evaluative mental picture of one's abilities and traits.
______versus_______: In Erikson's theory, the third crisis in psychosocial development, occurring between the ages of 3 and 6, in which children must balance the urge to pursue goals with the moral reservations that may prevent carrying them out.
guilt or initiative
Girls have greater neuronal density in the _______ than boys
On intelligence tests, females tend to do better than males on.....
mathematical computation tasks.
A ________ is a mentally organized network of information that influences a wide variety of behaviors.
Preschoolers choose playmate and friends who are .....
like them and with whom they have positive experience.
acute medical conditions
illnesses that last a short time
a chronic respiratory disease characterized by sudden attacks of coughing, wheezing, and difficulty in breathing.
body image
descriptive and evaluative beliefs about one's appearance.
chronic medical conditions
illnesses or impairments that persist for at least 3 months.
rough-and-tumble play
vigorous play involving wrestling, hitting, and chasing, often accompanied by laughing and screaming.
involuntary, frequent repetition or prolongation of sounds or syllabus.
School age children gain about _____ pounds per year.
5 - 8
_______children grow faster than white children.
African American
On average, school children need approximately _____ calories every day.
Much of the improvement in children's dental health is attributed to:
the use of adhesive sealants.
Girls are more likely to be overweight than boys.
T or F
chronically obese children?
They miss more school than their peers.
They are at risk for behavior problems.
They commonly have medical problems.
Girls can throw a small ball 40 feet at age___.
At age 6:
Research has found that the more time children spend watching TV, the more likely they are to:
feel anxious at bedtime.
It is more common in boys.
It runs in families.
It is an involuntary behavior.
It is not a lifelong condition.
Medical experts recommend extreme caution in prescribing growth hormone except....
as a replacement for natural hormone.
Permanent teeth appear at a rate of about ______ teeth per year.
four teeth per year.
_______ is a brain protein which seems to help regulate body fat.
Boys around the world participate in rough-and-tumble play more than girls do. T or F
The death rate in middle childhood is the ______ in the lifespan.
About ____ percent of schoolchildren's play, especially among boys, is rough and tumble play.
approach to educating the gifted, which moves them through a curriculum at an unusually rapid place.
achievement tests
tests that assess how much children know in various subject areas.
aptitude tests
tests that measure children's general intelligence, or capacity to learn.
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
syndrome characterized by persistent inattention and distractibility, impulsivity, low tolerance for frustration, and inappropriate overactivity.
fluent in two languages.
bilingual education
system of teaching non-English-speaking children in their native language while they learn English, and later switching to all-English instruction.
aggression deliberately and persistently directed against a particular target, or victim, typically one who is weak, vulnerable and defenseless.
central executive
in Baddeley's model, element of working memory that controls the processing of information.
class inclusion
understanding of the relationship between a whole and its parts.
componential element
Sternberg's term for the analytic aspect of intelligence.
concrete operations
third stage of Piagetian cognitive development (approximately from ages 7 to 12), during which children develop logical but not abstract thinking.
contextual element
Sternberg's term for the practical aspect of intelligence.
convergent thinking
thinking aimed at finding the one "right" answer to a problem.
cultural bias
tendency of intelligence tests to include items calling for knowledge or skills more familiar or meaningful to some cultural groups than to others.
describing an intelligence test that deals with experiences common to various cultures, in an attempt to avoid cultural bias.
describing an intelligence test that, if it were possible to design, would have no culturally linked content.
deductive reasoning
type of logical reasoning that moves from a general premise about a class to a conclusion about a particular member or members of the class.
divergent thinking
thinking that produces a variety of fresh, diverse possibilities.
developmental disorder in which reading achievement is substantially lower than predicted by IQ or age.
mnemonic strategy of making mental associations involving items to be remembered.
process by which information is prepared for long-term storage and later retrieval.
approach to teaching English as a second language in which instruction is presented only in English.
approach to educating the gifted, which broadens and deepens knowledge and skills through extra activities, projects, field trips, or mentoring.
experiential element
Sternberg's term for the practical aspect of intelligence.
external memory aids
mnemonic strategies using something outside the person.
generalized anxiety disorder
anxiety not focused on any single target.
horizontal d‚calage
Piaget's term for inability to transfer learning about one type of conservation to other types, which causes a child to master different types of conservation tasks at different ages.
inductive reasoning
type of logical reasoning that moves from particular observations about members of a class to a general conclusion about that class.
Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC)
Nontraditional individual intelligence test designed to provide fair assessments of minority children and children with disabilities.
learning disabilities (LDs)
disorders that interfere with specific aspects of learning and school achievement.
awareness of a person's own mental processes.
understanding of processes of memory.
mnemonic strategies
techniques to aid memory.
morality of constraint
first of Piaget's two stages of moral development, characterized by rigid, egocentric judgments.
morality of cooperation
second of Piaget's two stages of moral development, characterized by flexible judgments and formation of one's own moral code.
Otis-Lennon School Ability Test
group intelligence test for kindergarten through twelfth grade.
self-fulfilling prophecy
false expectation or prediction of behavior that tends to come true because it leads people to act as if it already were true.
ability to order items along a dimension.
social promotion
policy in which children are automatically promoted from one grade to another even if they do not meet academic standards for the grade they are completing.
Sternberg Triarchic abilities test (STAT)
test to measure componential, experiential, and contextual intelligence.
theory of multiple intelligences
Gardner's theory that each person has several distinct forms of intelligence.
transitive inference
understanding of the relationship between two objects by knowing the relationship of each to a third party.
triarchic theory of intelligence
Sternbreg's theory describing three types of intelligence: componential (analytical ability). experiential (insight and originality), and contextual (practical thinking).
two-way (dual-language) learning
approach to second-language education in which English speakers and on-English speakers learn together in their own and each other's languages.
working memory
short-term storage of information being actively processed.
Andrea can use a map to help her search for a hidden object. What cognitive ability has she acquired?
spatial thinking
The ability to see the relationship between a whole and its parts is called:
class inclusion.
Alan makes a list of items he must take to school in the morning. Which mnemonic strategy is he using?
external memory aid
Students who are high in self-efficacy do not:
become frustrated easily.
Boys from low-income families benefit academically. T or F
Children with ADHD are more likely to:
forget their responsibilities.
Tests of creativity require:
divergent thinking.
The Torrance Tests are fairly reliable, but there is little evidence that they are valid. True or False
A child from about age ___ to ___is in the stage of concrete operations.
7 to 12
Danielle can use a map or model to help her search for hidden object and can give someoene else direction for finding the object...
spatial thinking
Douglas knows which physical attribute of object on each side of a balance scale will affect the result.
Cause and effect
Elena can sort object into categories, such as shape, color or both. She kinows that a subclass (rose)has fewer members than the class of which it is a part (flower)
Caterin can arrange a group of sticks in order, from the shortest to the longes, and can insert an intermediate-size stick into the proper place. She knows that if one stick is longer than a second stick, and the second stick is longer than a third, then the first stick is longer than the third.
Seration and transitive inference.
Dara can solve both inductive and deductive problems and knows that inductive conclusions (based on particular premisis) are less certan deductive ones(based on general premisis)
inductive and deductive reasoning
Stacy, at age 7, knows that if a clay ball is rolled into a sausage, it still contains the same amount of clay.
Dora make a list of the thing she has to do today, what common memory strategie is used.
External memory aids,
Prompting by something outside the person.
5 and 6 year olds con do thism, but 8 year olds are more likely to think of it.
Tim says the letter in his spelling words over and over until he knows them. what memory stratgy used?
Rehearsal: Conscious repetition. 6 year olds can be taught to do this. 7 year olds do it spontaneousely.
Luis recalls the animal he saw in the zoo by thinking first of the mammalsm, then the reptiles, then amphibians, then fish and then birds. what memory stratgy used?
Organiztion: Grouping by categories
Yolanda remembers the lines of the musical staff (EGBDF) by assocating them with the phrase " every good boy does fine. What memory stratgy used?
Elaboration: associating items to be remembered with somethig else such as a phrase, scene, or story. older child do this spontaneously.
The self-concept becomes more realistic during middle childhood, when, according to neo-Piagetian theory, children form representational systems at around __ or ___ age.
7 to 8
behavior therapy
therapeutic approach using principles of learning theory to encourage desired behaviors or eliminate undesired ones; also called behavior modification.
childhood depression
mood disorder characterized by such symptoms as a prolonged sense of friendlessness, inability to have fun or concentrate, fatigue, extreme activity or apathy, feelings of worthlessness, weight change, physical complaints, and thoughts of death or suicide.
conduct disorder
repetitive, persistent pattern of aggressive, antisocial behavior violating societal norms or the rights of others.
transitional stage in control of behavior in which parents exercise general supervision and children exercise moment-to-moment self-regulation.
drug therapy
administration of drugs to treat emotional disorders.
family therapy
psychological treatment in which a therapist sees the whole family together to analyze patterns of family functioning.
generalized anxiety disorder
anxiety not focused on any single target.
individual psychotherapy
psychological treatment in which a therapist sees a troubled person one-on-one.
industry versus inferiority
Erikson's fourth critical alternative of psychosocial development, in which children must learn the productive skills their culture requires or else face the feelings of inferiority.
obsessive-compulsive disorder
anxiety aroused by repetitive, intrusive thoughts, images, or impulses, often leading to compulsive ritual behaviors.
oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)
pattern of behavior, persisting into middle childhood, marked by negativity, hostility and defiance.
protective factors
influences that reduce the impact of early stress and tend to predict positive outcomes.
representational systems
in neo-Piagetian terminology, the third stage in development of self-definition, characterized by breadth, balance, and the integration and assessment of various aspects of the self.
Children with high self-esteem:
are more willing to perform volunteer work.
children low in effortful control?
They are more likely to have authoritarian parents.
They tend to become frustrated when interrupted.
They are likely to have later behavioral problems.
In regards to children's control of behavior, middle childhood brings a transitional stage in which:
parents and children share the power.
Seven-year-old Amanda says that Gail is her friend because she always gives her candy when she asks for some. According to Selman's stages of friendship, this is an example of:
one-way assistance.
Some children see other children as trying to hurt them, even if this is not the case, so they strike out in retaliation. This is called:
hostile attribution bias.
The two most important protective factors which seem to help children overcome stress and contribute to resilience are:
good family relationships and high cognitive function.
Parents of school-age children are more likely to use ______ ______when handling discipline.
inductive techniques
One third of first marriages dissolve within ten years.
_______ ______ ______ _________are used to treat depression.
Serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors
When under stress, resilient children regulate their emotions by shifting _________ to something else.
How do school-age children develop a realistic self-concept, and what contributes to self-esteem?
According to Erikson, the chief source of self-esteem is children's view of their productive competence. This "virtue" develops through resolution of the crisis of industry versus inferiority. According to Susan Harter's research, however, self-esteem arises primarily from social support and self-evaluation.
How do school-age children show emotional growth?
School-age children have internalized shame and pride and can better understand and control negative emotions.
Empathy and prosocial behavior increases.
Emotional growth is affected by parent's reactions to display of negative emotions.
How do parent-child relationships change in middle childhood?
School-age children spend less time with, and are less close to, parents than before; but relationships with parents continue to be important. Culture influences family relationships and roles.
Development of coregulation may affect the way a family handles conflicts and discipline.
Selman's Stages of friendship
Stage 0: Mentary playmateship
ages 3 to 7
Stage 1: One-way assistance ages 4 to 9
Stage 2: Two-way fair-weather cooperation ages 6 to 12
Stage 3: intimate, ,uutally shared relationships ages 9-15
Stage 4: autonomous interdependence beginning at age 12
She lives on my street or he has the power rangers
stage 0: monmentary playmateship.
On this undfferentated level of friendship children are egocentric and have trouble considering another person's point of view they ten to think only about what they want from the relationship.
Most very hoyng children define their friends in terms of physical closeness and value them for
material or physical attributes.
She's not my friend any more, because she wouldn't go with me when I wanted her to or he's my friend because he always says yes when I want to barrow his eraser
Stage 1: one-way assistance
on this unilateral level, a "good friend" does what the child wants the friend to do.
It takes a long time to make a close friend, so you really feel bad if you find out that your friend is trying to make other friends too
Stage 3: intimate, mutually shared relationships
on this mutal level, children view a friendship as having a life of its own. it is an ongoing systematic, committed relationship that incorprates more than doing things for each other. friends become possessive and demand exclusivity.
A good friendship is a real commitment a risk you have to take; you have to support and trust and give, but you have to be able to let go too.
Stage 4: autonomous interdependence
In this interdependent stage, childrean respect friends' needs for both dependency and autonomy.
We are friends; we do things for each other or a friend is someone who plays with you when you don't have anybody else to play with.
Stage 2: Two-way Fair-weather cooperation
This reciprocal level overloaps stage 1. It involves give and take but still serves many separate self interests, rather than the common interests of the two friend
Middle childhood is a prime time for bulling because
victims tend to be weak and submissive or argumentative and provocative and have low self esteem.
Children tend to wory about
school, health and personal safety.
developmental transition between childhood and adulthood entailing major physical, cognitive, and psychosocial changes.
adolescent growth spurt
sharp increase in height and weight that precedes sexual maturity.
maturation of adrenal glands.
gateway drugs
drugs such as alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana, the use of which tends to lead to use of more addictive drugs.
maturation of the testes or ovaries.
girl's first menstruation.
primary sex characteristics
organs directly related to reproduction, which enlarge and mature during adolescence.
process by which a person attains sexual maturity and the ability to reproduce.
secular trend
trend that can be seen only by observing several generations, such as the trend toward earlier attainment of adult height and sexual maturity, which began a century ago.
secondary sex characteristics
physiological signs of sexual maturation (such as breast development and growth of body hair) that do not involve the sex organs.
boy's first ejaculation.
what occurs during adenarche?
secretion of androgens
Which of the following is a secondary sex characteristic?
breast of females
Spermarche occurs in boys at an average age of:
The growth spurt in the adolescent's brain takes place chiefly in the:
frontal lobe.
Which part of the brain do adolescents use to process information about emotions?
Early warning signs include excessive exercising.
It may be accompanied by cessation of menstruation.
Those who have this disorder are often described as "model" children. What is this disorder
anorexia nervosa
The most prevalent STD is:
human papilloma virus.
risk factor for depression in adolescents?
fear of social contact
chronic illness
parent-child conflict
The leading cause of death in U.S. teenagers is:
motor vehicle accident.
Young people who succeed at suicide are most likely to:
use firearms.
Race/ethnicity affects the timing of puberty. T or F
Early maturation is associated with a tendency toward risky behavior in both boys and girls. T F
One of the most curable STDs is _______?
Secondary Sex Characteristics for girls are
pubic hair
axillary hair
changes in voice
changes in skin
increased width in depth of pelvis
musular development
Secondary sex characteristics for boys are
pubic hair
axillary hair
muscular development
facial hair
changes in voice
changes in skin
broadening of shoulders
conventional morality (or morality of conventional role conformity)
second level in Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning, in which the standards of authority figures are internalized.
formal operations
in Piaget's theory, the final stage of cognitive development, characterized by the ability to think abstractly.
hypothetical-deductive reasoning
ability, believed by Piaget to accompany the state of formal operations, to develop, consider, and test hypotheses.
imaginary audience
Elkind's term for an observer who exists only in an adolescent's mind and is as concerned with the adolescent's thoughts and actions as the adolescent is.
personal fable
Elkind's term for conviction that one is special, unique, and not subject to the rules that govern the rest of the world.
postconventional morality (or morality of autonomous moral principles)
third level in Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning, in which people follow internally held moral principles and can decide among conflicting moral standards.
preconventional morality
first level of Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning, in which control is external and rules are obeyed in order to gain rewards or avoid punishment, or out of self-interest.
social capital
family and community resources upon which a person can draw.
In regards to Piaget's work, research has seriously challenged his:
assertion of definite stages of development.
what is a structural cognitive change occurring in adolescence?
the expansion of working memory
_____ knowledge consists of all the factual knowledge a person has acquired.
According to Elkind, young adolescents often do not recognize the difference between expressing an ideal and making the sacrifices necessary to live up to it. He identified this characteristic as:
apparent hypocrisy.
What term does Elkind use to denote a belief by adolescents that they are special, that their experience is unique, and that they are not subject to the rules that govern the rest of the world?
personal fable
According to Kohlberg, the level of moral reasoning that includes maintaining mutual relations, and social concern and conscience, is:
conventional morality.
According to Fowler, children aged 7 - 10 are typically at the stage of faith called:
mythic-literal faith.
What is true of parents' influence on motivation and achievement?
Parent influence can be less important than peer influence.
statements about gender and achievement
Boys and girls score about the same in most areas of subject-matter.
Girls earn better grades than boys.
Boys receive more favorable attention from teachers than girls.
In terms of occupational options in the United States:
students' self-efficacy beliefs shape the options they consider.
Many adolescents and adults are incapable of_____ ____.
abstract thought.
Kohlberg's early stages of moral development correspond to
Piaget's stages of moral development in childhood
Teachers tend to discipline boys more ______ than girls.
Girls tend to have greater confidence in their ______ abilities than boys.
Male and female high school seniors are now equally likely to plan careers in ______ and _______.
math and science.
According to _________, moral reasoning is based on a developing sense of justice and growing cognitive abilities.
According to _______, Adolescents enter the highest level of cognitive development---- formal operations
adolescent rebellion
pattern of emotional turmoil, characteristic of a minority of adolescents, which may involve conflict with family, alienation from adult society, reckless behavior, and rejection of adult values.
Marcia's term for personal investment in an occupation or system of beliefs.
Marcia's term for period of conscious decision making related to identity formation.
identity status, described by Marcia, in which a person who has not yet spent time considering alternatives (that is, has not been in crisis) is committed to other people's plans for his or her life.
identity achievement
identity status, described by Marcia, which is characterized by commitment to choices made following a crisis, a period spent in exploring alternatives.
identity diffusion
identity status, described by Marcia, which is characterized by absence of commitment and lack of serious consideration of alternatives.
identity statuses
Marcia's term for stages of ego development that depend on the presence or absence of crisis and commitment.
identity versus identity confusion
Erikson's fifth crisis of psychosocial development in which an adolescent seeks to develop a coherent sense of self, including the role she or he is to play in society. Also called identity versus role confusion.
identity status, described by Marcia, in which a person is currently considering alternatives (in crisis) and seems headed for commitment.
patchwork self
Elkind's term for a sense of identity constructed by substituting other peoples' attitudes, beliefs, and commitments for one's own.
sexual orientation
focus of consistent sexual, romantic, and affectionate interest, either heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual.
Erikson's fifth crisis of psychosocial development, in which an adolescent seeks to develop a coherent sense of self, is called:
identity versus identity confusion.
Marcia's term for states of ego development is:
identity statuses.
According to Marcia, "crisis leading to commitment" is called:
CORRECT. For more information, review the "Marcia: Identity Status -- Crisis and Commitment" section in the textbook.
Gary is unsure of himself and tends to be uncooperative. He has not seriously considered options and has avoided commitments. According to Marcia, his status is:
ideal diffusion.
A sense of self, built mainly by substitution, is what Elkind calls:
a patchwork self.
A factor associated with becoming sexually active at an early age is:
having an impulsive personality.
Adolescents who are considered controversial:
tend to do well in school.
Early childhood intervention programs that appear to be effective in reducing delinquency later in childhood, operate on Bronfenbrenner's:
mesosystem and exosystem.
Erikson saw the prime danger of adolescence as ....
identity or role confusion.
Sexual orientation seems to be at least partly _____.
Delinquency typically peaks at about age ___ and then declines.