Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/91

Click to flip

91 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name 3 RAM sticks we use today.
1 SIMM
2 DIMM
3 RIMM
RAM form factors are also called _____.
Packages
SIMM = ______

SIMM sticks come in either __-pin or __-pin layouts.
Single Inline memory modules
30
72
30-Pin SIMMs put out _ bits of data on the data bus at one time, which makes them _ bits wide.
8
8
30-Pin SIMMs have a capacity of __MB to __MB
1
16
__-pin SIMMs are 32 bits wide & are available up to __ MB.
72 pin

64
DIMM = _____
Name the 2 popular variants used in laptops.
Dual Inline Memory Module
1 SODIMM (Small outline Memory Module)
2 MicroDIMM
DIMMs have either ___ or ___ pins, are __ bits wide, and range in capacity from _MB to ___MB.
168 184
64 8 512
MicroDIMM comes in ___-pin packages.
144
SO-DIMM variant come in __ and ___-pin configurations.
72

144
What is the difference between the 72 pin & 144 pin versions of SO-DIMM.
The 72 pin is 32 bit
144 pin is 64 bit
RIMM = ____
RIMM is better defined as____
Rambus Inline Memory Module
RDRAM (Rambus dynamic RAM)
RIMM sticks come in capacities up to ___ MB and look like DIMMs but have ___ pins.
512

184
RIMM sticks usually have a ____ ____ shield that dissipates the heat generated.
heat spreader
When should you attempt to remove the heat spreader shield from RIMM sticks?
NEVER
Name the 2 types of RAM. What is the main differences?
1 SRAM (Static RAM)
2 DRAM (Dynamic RAM)
SRAM is faster not needing to be refreshed & more costly
The interval of time (usually nano seconds; ns) it takes to refresh DRAM is called a _____ _____.
Wait State
SRAM is usually used for what kind(s) of memory.
L1, L2, L3 caches
DRAM is used for ______ memory & needs to be refreshed every few nanoseconds (ns)
system
EDO = _____
EDO RAM is sold in __-pin SIMMs and ___-pin DIMMs and has access times of __-__ (ns)
Extended Data Out RAM
72 SIMM
168 DIMM
50-60ns
SDRAM = _____
It delivers data in ____-_____ bursts.
Synchronous Dynamic RAM
High-speed
EDO is asynchronous, meaning it runs at a speed independant of the system clock speed. (T/F)
True
SDRAM runs at the speed of the system bus and has access times in the __-__ ns range.
SDRAM is rated in ns or Hz?
8-10 ns

Rated in MHz
Manufacturers label SDRAM with both nanosecond & a megahertz rating. (T/F)
True
SDRAM is rated according to what...?
The hightes speed data bus it runs on. Such as 66, 100, 133 Mhz.
What special chip do the SDRAM DIMMs have that identifies its size, speed, and other information.
SPD = Serial Presence Detect (chip)
What is the most common form of SDRAM?
A 168-pin DIMM
SDRAM for laptops comes in 2 reduced-size varieties, __-pin & ___-pin SO DIMMs & MicroDIMMs.
72
144
DDR SDRAM = _____
Double data rate synchronous dynamic RAM.
DDR SDRAM comes in designations ranging from ___MHz to ___ MHz.
266

433
DDR SDRAM comes in a ___-pin ____ package for desktops or either a ___-pin SO DIMM or a ___-pin MicroDIMM for laptops.
184 DIMM
200
172
RDRAM was developed by what company, and uses what kind of special channels to transfer data at a 800 MHz.
Rambus Inc.
special Rambus channels
If you double the channel width of a regular Rambus channel, what is the new transfer speed?
normal is 800 MHz

doubled is 1.6 GHz
DDR SDRAM = _____
Double data rate synchronous dynamic RAM.
DDR SDRAM comes in designations ranging from ___MHz to ___ MHz.
266

433
DDR SDRAM comes in a ___-pin ____ package for desktops or either a ___-pin SO DIMM or a ___-pin MicroDIMM for laptops.
184 DIMM
200
172
RDRAM was developed by what company, and uses what kind of special channels to transfer data at a 800 MHz.
Rambus Inc.
special Rambus channels
If you double the channel width of a regular Rambus channel, what is the new transfer speed?
normal is 800 MHz

doubled is 1.6 GHz
DDR SDRAM = _____
Double data rate synchronous dynamic RAM.
DDR SDRAM comes in designations ranging from ___MHz to ___ MHz.
266

433
DDR SDRAM comes in a ___-pin ____ package for desktops or either a ___-pin SO DIMM or a ___-pin MicroDIMM for laptops.
184 DIMM
200
172
RDRAM was developed by what company, and uses what kind of special channels to transfer data at a 800 MHz.
Rambus Inc.
special Rambus channels
If you double the channel width of a regular Rambus channel, what is the new transfer speed?
normal is 800 MHz

doubled is 1.6 GHz
VRAM = _____ and is used for _____ cards, not system memory.
Video RAM

Video
VRAM is a very fast type of DRAM that is ____ ____ meaning that it can be read from & written at same time.
Dual Ported
WRAM = ______ and is what type of RAM.
(window)RAM
Which is a faster dual ported RAM, VRAM or WRAM? Why?
WRAM, because it can access large blocks (windows) of memory.
ECC = _____ and what is it?
Error Correcting Code, a type of Parity RAM.
Parity RAM or ECC do what?
Use special circuitry to detect & correct error in data.
How did the Parity RAM work in older systems?
It used a parity chip mounted on the RAM stick that added an extra bit (parity bit) to each byte of data
______ ___ was useful in older systems when DRAM had a relatively high failure rate.
Parity RAM
ECC RAM works on-the-fly to detect and correct data errors without interrupting the system processes. (T/F)
True
RAM was never originally installed on the mobo. (T/F)
False, it was originally, but it took up too much room.
Most mobos that are designed for parity or ECC RAM can be configured in BIOS to disable error checking... why?
Allowing you to install RAM that is not parity or ECC RAM
CPUs read data how?
1 byte at a time
MFGs arrange memory slots on mobos in electronic groups of __, __, or __. These groups are called what?
1
2
4
Memory Banks
Memory Banks match the width of the ________'s data bus.
Processor
Banking RAM enables the processor to....?
Access as much RAM as it can handle at one chunk, making data transfers as efficient as possible
What is the basic rule of banking?
You need to fill a bank completely with the identical type & speed of RAM.
To determine the # of RAM modules needed to complete a bank....
Divide the width of the external data bus by the bit width of the RAM.
Can unused RIMM sockets be left empty? If not, why?
No
They need a special RIMM terminator called a "Continuity RIMM" (CRIMM)
Memory banks should either be _______ ______ or _______ ______.
completely filled

completely empty
What is the minimum banks needed to boot your Pc Properly?
At least 1 bank, no banks results in a non-booting system.
How should RAM be handled?
By the edges, and avoid touching the contacts or circuits.
If you are installing RAM on a portable PC, you must also remove the battery. (T/F)
True, just as you unplug a desktop to prevent the constant charge on the mobo.
After the RAM is installed, what should you do?
Confirm that your PC recognizes it by booting up and checking the RAM count message
Older systems may require you to _____ RAM amount after you have installed/upgraded the RAM.
Confirm

(performed in the BIOS)
Name some errors that can mimic RAM errors. (5)
1 Page Faults, 2 Exception errors, 3 Blue screen of death, 4 system slowdown/freeze, 5 sudden reboot
The false RAM errors could be caused by what?
Badly fragmented hard disk
An overtaxed CPU
Faulty application or driver
Overheating, dead power supply
Name the first 2 geniune RAM error symptoms according to pg 135.
1 Boots, followed by a loud, repeating beep
2 Boots, but CRT is blank
Name the second 2 genuine RAM error symptoms according to pg 135.
1 Boots, but misreports RAM

2 Boots, reports memory or address error
A Genuine RAM error is usually the result of what 3 things.
1 RAM configuration error
2 RAM installation error
3 Faulty RAM component
A RAM configuration error typically means that...
It's the wrong type or speed of RAM, not following banking/terminating rules, incompatible mobo with RAM
Why might the system's mobo be incompatible with the newly installed RAM?
Incompatible because of the hardware or BIOS.
What is the term for a BIOS configuration where the contents of BIOS are copied into RAM for quick access?
RAM Shadowing, can cause Memory errors or system lockups.
RAM ERROR Symptom, Give Cause

Computer won't start, accompanied by beeps.
Probable Cause

Configuration, installation, faulty/damaged RAM
RAM ERROR Symptom, Give Sol.

Computer won't start, accompanied by beeps.
Confirm RAM configuration is correct, Check RAM for proper seating/termination, Replace RAM
RAM ERROR Symptom, Give Cause

Computer Starts, but screen is blank.
Probable Cause

Configuration or Installation
RAM ERROR Symptom, Give Sol.

Computer Starts, but screen is blank.
Confirm RAM configuration is correct, Check RAM for proper seating/termination, check other components' seating
RAM ERROR Symptom, Give Cause

Computer starts but misreports the amound of RAM.
Probable Cause

Configuration
RAM ERROR Symptom, Give Sol.

Computer starts but misreports the amound of RAM.
Confirm RAM configuration is correct, check installation by banking rules, Update BIOS
RAM ERROR Symptom, Give Cause

Computer reports a "Memory Mismatch" error as startup.
Probable Cause

Configuration
RAM ERROR Symptom, Give Sol.

Computer reports a "Memory Mismatch" error as startup.
Confirm RAM configuration is correct, manually confirm/enter correct amount of RAM in CMOS.
RAM ERROR Symptom, Give Cause

Computer reports a memory error, (Memory Failure @ xxx)
Probable Cause

Configuration, faulty/damaged RAM
RAM ERROR Symptom, Give Sol.

Computer reports a memory error, (Memory Failure @ xxx)
Confirm that all RAM is supported by Mobo, perform RAM maintenance or replace with known good RAM
RAM ERROR Symptom, Give Cause

Computer locks up or spontaneously reboots.
Faulty or damaged RAM or other
RAM ERROR Symptom, Give Sol.

Computer locks up or spontaneously reboots.
Perform RAM maintenance or replace with known good RAM.
Check Power Supply, Disable BIOS shadowing.
RAM ERROR Symptom, Give Cause

Computer reports Registry Error
Faulty or damaged RAM
RAM ERROR Symptom, Give Sol.

Computer reports Registry Error
Perform RAM maintenance or replace with known good RAM.
RAM ERROR Symptom, Give Cause
Computer reports general protection faults, page faults or exception errors.
Faulty or damaged RAM or other
RAM ERROR Symptom, Give Sol.
Computer reports general protection faults, page faults or exception errors.
Restart PC. Uninstall any recently installed applications/drivers. Perform RAM maintenance or replace with known good RAM