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80 Cards in this Set

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What does fat breakdown and become?
Fatty Acid and Glycerol
Glycerol break down in liver to become______ ? This is the _____ cycle of cellular respiration.
Glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate

Glycolysis
After Glycerol is converted to glyceraldeyde 3 phospate then __________, ___________, and ______________ occur for NRG as in cellular respiration.
Glycolysis, Krebs, and Electron transport.
Fatty Acids are long chains of __________ ?
Carbons
Fatty Acids (carbon chains) are broken down by a series of reactions called _____________ to become _____ ?
Beta Oxidation, 2 carbon chains
When Fatty Acids (carbon chains) are broken down by beta oxidation they become __________ ?
Acetyl co A
After FA become Acetyl Co A from beta oxidation ________ then __________ occur for NRG.
Krebs and electron transport
Fatty Acids are broken down in the ________ ?
liver
Another product of FA breakdown by cellular oxidation is __________ ?
Ketones
The (3) Ketone byproduct of FA breakdown are __________, _________, and ________ ?
acetoacetic acid, Beta Hydroxybuteric acid, and acetone
Acetone (byproduct of FA breakdown) is in ________, and has a __________ smell?
nailpolish remover, fruity
The ketones (acetoacetic acid, betahydroxbuteric acid, and acetone) cause blood pH to __________ ?
decrease
When does KETOACIDOSIS occur?
1 After a rich and fatty meal

2 Starvation diet

3 Diabetics
Ketones are excreted by the __________ ?
Kidneys
Why do Diabetics have sweet breath?
B/c they are undergoing ketoacidosis and as result of the ketoacidosis and acetone.
Why do diabetics breakdown fat alot for NRG?
B/c their cells cant get glucose for NRG so they breakdown fat for NRG.
d/ LIPOGENESIS?
production of fat from glucose or AA
Why does lipogenesis occur?
When there is an excess of carb or protein in the diet
If there is an excess consumption; the Acetyl Co A (from glucose and AA breakdown) can be converted to ___________ ?
Fatty Acids
The Pyruvic Acid converted from Carbohydrate breakdown can either become __________ or _____________ ?
Acetyl Co A or lactic Acid
The Pyruvic Acid from Glycerol breakdown can either become ___________ or _________ ?
Acetyl Co A or Fatty Acid
Are protein and AA stored in the body?
No
Is glucose stored in the body? if so as what?
Yes as glycogen and polysacharide
Is fat stored in the body?
yes as adipose tissue
Proteins are broken down to _________ and circulate in the ________ and ______.
AA, blood, cells
These AA in the blood and cells must be used with a _______ or so.
day
What are the (5) function of protein?
1 - Make up all enzymes and antibodies

2 - in plasma proteins responsible for agglutination

3 - in actin and mysin that make up muscle proteins

4 - in keratin which is in skin, hair, and nails

5 - in collagen (connective tissue that hold everything together
You need vitamin _____ to make collagen?
C
Lack of Vitamin C will result in ______ ?
Scurvy
Scurvy makes your body ____ ? Scurvy was a disease common to _________, who lacked vit C in their diet.
fall apart, sailors
How many AA found in proteins?
20
How many AA are essential
9
What are good sources of protein in the diet?
Egg whites, meat, fish, peanut butter, beans, legumes, soy
Why are some AA considered essential?
B/c the body does not make them
What are the names of the (9)essential AA?
Tryptophan, Valine, Threonine, Isoleucine, Lysine, Leucine, Phenylthalanine, methianine, histadime (infants only)
What can the AA lycine be used to treat? How much?
Cold sore or fever blister, 500mg
Other 13 AA can be made from __ ________ __?
9 essential AA
*** (2 test questions)What is the anachronism to remember the 9 essential AA?
TV till PM
d/ TRANSAMINATION?
process by which we produce non-essential AA from essential AA.
AA can be catabolized for ___ or converted to ___ ?
NRG, or fat
d/ DEAMINATION?
removal of the amino group
What is the amino group?
NH2
NH2 become _____ which is the same as _______.
NH3, ammonia
NH3 or ammonia are quickly converted to _________ ?
Urea
Urea goes into ______ then to _______ and put into _______ and excreted.
blood, kidney, urine
AA can be converted to ________, __________, or various acids of Krebs cycle.
glucose, fatty acids
What controls varous fx of metabolism?
Hormones
What is endocrine system?
System of glands that secrete hormones into blood, travel thru circulatory system and have effect on certain bodily functions
What is normal glucose level?
80-120mg/100ml
What 2 hormones control glucose level in blood?
Insulin and Glucagon
What organ makes insulin?
Beta cells of pancreas
What does insulin do if blood sugar is too high?
Make cells absorb more glucose from the blood.
When isulin allows cells to absorb excess glucose what is this excess glucose converted to?
Fat or glycogen
What affect does insulin have on gluconeogenesis?
Inhibits production of glucose from fat and protein. This is bad
Diabetics want to limit carbs and sugar in diet to stabilize their __________? This way glucose is made slowly from __________ of fatss and proteins and insulin need is decreased.
blood glucose levels.

Gluconeogenesis
Having a low carb, sugar diet saves your _________ and helps you from becoming a ________?
pancreas

diabetic
What is glucagon? and where is it produced?
When glucose approaches lower limits, alpha cells of pancreas secrete glucagon.
Glucagon is the opposite of ________ ?
Insulin
What are the (2) functions of glucagon?
Stimulates:

1 - gluconeogenesis (good) in liver (making glucose fr fat or AA)

2 - glycogenolysis (good) (breaking down stored glycogen to glucose)
Glucose ____ glucose in blood, while glucagon ________ glucose in blood?
increases, decreases
Where does HGH (human growth hormone)come from?
Comes from pituitary (hypophesis)
What does HGH do?
Stimulate cells to catabolize fat instead of carbs.
When is HGH secreted normally?
adolescense
What does ACTH stand for?

Where is it secreted?
adrenocorticotropic hormone

Pituitary Gland
Fx of ACTH?
Stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete (secretes many hormones) glucocorticoids
d/ TROPIC?
Stimulates or influences
d/ CORTEX?
outside of something IE like bark
Where is ADRENAL GALND?
on top of kidney
Any hormone that has "tropic" is secreted by the ________ ?
Pituitary Gland
Fx of GLUCOCORTICOIDS (secreted from Adrenal Cortex that was stimulated by ACTH in Pituitary)?
Stimulates gluconeogenesis which makes glucose more available and increases blood sugar.
GLUCONEOGENESIS makes glucose (more or less) available and (increases or decreases) blood sugar?
more, increase
Any hormone that causes gluconeogenesis also causes breakdown of _____ and _____ ?
Fat and AA
Glucocorticoids are secreted during times of _________ ________ and this is done to make sure you have enough _____ for _______? Give example
physical stress, glucose, NRG.

Cold weather.
TSH stands for?

Where secreted?

Fx of TSH?
Thyroid stimulating hormone.

Pituitary

stimulate Thyroid Gland to secrete T3 and T4 (result in Increase BMR and cellular respiration).
T3 and T4 secreted by Thyroid gland will ________ and _______ ?
increase BMR and cellular resiration
If TSH level is high, would T3 and T4 level be (high or low)?
low
If TSH level is low, would T3 and T4 level be (high or low)?
high
Any hormone that causes gluconeogenesis also causes protein and fat(anabolism or catabolism)?
Catabolism
What 3 anabolic hormones causes protein anabolism?
Testosterone, Progesterone, and HGH
Do you secrete HGH when you get older?
Some but not much, mostly secreted in adolescence