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126 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Bones are what kind of tissue?
Connective
Why are bones rigid?
Due to calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate(both minerals) STORED between cells.
What is collagen and collagenous?
Collagen - naturally occuring proteins, the main protein of connective tissues in humans. It is a fibrous protein. (You can make gelatin by boiling it)
How are the mineral components of bone reinforced?
Reiforced by collagenous extracellular matrix.
What is the two purposes of bones?
Support and protection
Name a type of marrow in bones and what it creates?
Red marrow, and it forms red blood cells
Bones are a storage area for what two minerals?
Calcium and phosphorous
What are the 5 types of bones? Give brief description of each.
1. Long bones - long like ulna 2. Short bones - cubelike (tarsals and carpals) 3. Flat bones - platelike (ribs) 4. Irregular bones - variety of shapes (vertebrea) 5. Sesamoid or Round bones - small and nodular (patella)
What do you call the point on a bone where it meets another bone?
Epiphysis
Another term for meeting point is __________ point.
Articulation
What is the coating of cartilage at the articulation point called?
Articular cartilage
The cartilage at the artriculation point is made of __________ cartilage.
Hyaline
The shaft between the artriculation points is called the ____________.
Diaphysis
What is the tissue covering the bone called? What does it look like? What are its 3 functions? Where is it not located?
Periosteum; a vascular fibrios tissue; 1 attached to the bone, 2continuous with ligaments and tendons, and 3 aids in bone formation and repair; It is not located on the articular cartilage area.
What is Medullary cavity? What type of bone is it in? What type of bone is it continuous with?
A semi-rigid hollow chamber. In Compact bone. Continuous with Spongy bone.
What is endosteum? What does it contain? Where is it located?
It is a thin membrane containing bone forming cells, and it is located on medullary cavity.
What is marrow, and where is it located?
It is a specialized soft connective tissure that fills the medullary cavity.
Describe Compact bone.
tightly packed or dense tissue continuous with the extracellular matrix.
Where is spongy bone mostly found? What does spongy bone consist of, and what are they called?
In the epiphysises. It consist of branching boney plates called trabeculae.
What is the benefit of spongy bone? Where are the bony plates most developed? Why?
Reduces weight, while providing strength and rigidity. They are most developed at the epiphysis because compressive forces are high.
What are similar characteristics of compact and spongy bone?
They both are rigid, strong, and resist compressive forces.
Compact bone typically ______________ spongy bone.(where it is located in relation)
Overlays
Is the amount of spongy and compact bone standard in all bones? Why?
No, It varies according to bone type, which is directly related to LOCATION and FUNCTION.
Name 3 bone surface shapes, and their function.
1. Boney projection - provide attachment sites for tendons and ligaments. 2. Grooves and openings - provide passageways for blood vessels and nerves. 3. Bones have features at the articulation points that correspond to the articulation needs.
What are the two main components of compact bone?
Osteocytes and a layered extracellular matrix (ECM).
The formation of ___________ resists compression.
Osteons
The ECM is clustered around a central _________.
canal
What is an osteon? What does it contain?
The fundamental unit of compact bone. They are cylindrical structures. Contains a central canal, Lamellae, Canaliculi, Lacunae, Osteocytes
What does lacunae mean? What is inside of it?
It means small space. It contains an osteocyte.
What hold the cellular processes of the osteocytes?
the Canaliculi
What is the canaliculi?
It holds the cellular process of the osteocytes and it is a canal that connects lacunea to lacunea.
What is transported through the cellular processes of the osteocytes? Where does it take place?
Nutrients and Wastes. In the Canaliculi.
What 2 things is the ECM mostly made of? What is the purpose of each?
1. Collagen - provides resilient strength component. 2. inorganic salts - harden bone making it crush resistent.
What deposits or creates ECM?
Osteoblasts.
What is lamellae? What pattern does it form?
The thin layers that make up the ECM. Concentric patterns.
Osteoblasts become _____________ after they position themselves in the _____________, and they are surrounded by the matrix or ____________.
osteocytes; lacunae; lamellae
What is in the central canal? What kind of tissue holds these items? Does it go horizontally or Longitudinally through the bone?
Blood vessels and nerve fibers held together by loose connective tissue; Longitudinally
What connects one central canal or ____________ canal to another central canal?
Haversian; connected by transverse canals also called Volkmann's canals or perforating canals.
What are Gap Junctions?
Junctions between cells that allow nutrients (i.e. molecules) to pass between cells.
What do gap junctions do in bone? What do they connect?
They connect the processes of osteocytes and other cells to allow easy and rapid transport of nutrients from the blood supply to all cells in the bone.
Spongy bone is composed of what?
Osteocytes and an ECM
____________ bone does not have a central canal.
Spongy
Cells in spongy bone are contained in ___________ plates called ___________.
bony; trabeculae
Bone lengthens at the _______________ plate. It is the site of cell _____________.
ephphyseal; proliferation
_______________ cells at the epiphyseal plate grow out in ________ separate stages or layers.
Cartilagenous; 4
What type of cartilage make up each layer at the epiphyseal plate?
First - Resting Cartilage, Second - Proliferating Cartilage, Third - Hypertrophic Cartilage, Fourth - Calcified Cartilage
Where is the first layer of bone growth located? What role do they have in growth? What is their role?
Located at the end of the epiphysis. No role in bone growth. Serve as an anchor to the epiphyseal plate.
What makes up the second layer of bone growth? What happens here?
It is many rows of young cartilage cells undergoing mitosis (cell division). / As new cells form and ECM forms around them, the plate thickens.
What makes up the third layer of bone growth? What happens at this layer?
Older cells thicken the plate further. / Osteoblasts secrete calcium salts around these cells in the ECM, which causes the cells to die.
What makes up the fourth layer of bone growth? What happens here?
Made up of dead cells and calcified ECM. / Osteoclasts break down this calcified matrix.
What is the origin of osteoclasts?
The fusion of single nucleus white blood cells to from a multinucleated osteoclast
What are the 3 actions of osteoclasts in calcified cartilage?
1. Secrete acids in ECM. 2. Lysosomal enzymes digest the organic or non-mineral component. 3. Can phagocytize bony matrix.
After ___________ digest the ECM, ___________ migrate into the are and build ______ where the ________ once existed.
osteoclast; osteoblast; bone; cartilage
When do bones stop to lengthen?
When cartilage cells cease activity.
What happens when cartilage cells of the epiphyseal plate stop activity?
All four layers ossify completely.
How can bones thicken? Can they lengthen this way?
By laying down compact bone below the periosteum. No.
The thickening of bone with compact bone allows osteoclast to digest the __________ to form the ______________.
interior; medullary cavity.
Does spongy bone remain in either the diaphysis or the epiphysis or both, after the cessation of bone growth?
both
When does bone remodeling take place in a human's life?
Throughout
Osteoclast __________ bone, and osteoblasts _________ bone.
absorb; build
During reabsorpion and deposition does the mass of bone tissue increase, decrease, or remain constant?
Remain constant.
What percent of bone calcium is exchanged each year?
3 to 5 percent.
What 4 factors effect bone growth, development and repair?
Nutrition, Sunlight exposure, Hormonal secretions, and Physical exercise.
What is the most important factor of nutrition? Why is it necessary? What happens with poor nutrition?
Vitamin D. For calcium absorption from intestines. Poor absorption leads to lack of inorganic calcium deposits in the matrix, which can soften bones.
What happens when children get little Vitamin D? Adults?
They get soft bones called rickets. It is called osteomalacia in adults.
How much Vit. D is in food?
It is scarce in food.
____________ formed by cells in the digestive tract is carried to the ___________ where it is converted to Vitamin D.
Dehydrocholesterol; skin
Besides Vit. D what other 2 Vitamins are required with bone development?
Vitamin A and C
What vitamin is required for osteoclasts and osteoblasts? A deficiency of this vitamin does what?
Vitamin A. ; limits bone development.
What vitamin is required for collagen synthesis and osteoblast function? A defeciency of this vitamin causes what?
Vitamin C. ; leads to thin fragile bones.
What secretes the growth hormone?
The pituitary gland?
What does the growth hormone do?
Stimulates growth of cartilage cells at the epiphyseal plate.
Lack of growth hormones leads to __________, and excess growth hormones leads to __________.
short bones; long bones
What is thyroxine, and what secretes it?
It stimulates ossification of cartilage at the e. plate and osteoblast activity. ; Thyroid secretes it.
What is the Parathyroid hormone?
Secreted by the parathyroid gland and it stimulates osteoclast activity.
__________ hormone stimulates osteoclasts, and ___________ hormone stimulates osteoblasts
Parathyroid; Thyroxine
What is testosterone and estrogens role in bone growth?
It promotes bone formation, and ossification of the e. plate.
Estrogen promotes ossification of the e.plate ___________ testosterone.
before
Physical activity promotes bone thickening or ____________, and lack of physical activity promotes thinner bones or _________.
Hypertrophy; atrophy
Where do blood cells form in adults?
the marrow
What does marrow look like? Where is it contained?
a soft net-like mass of connective tissue; contained in medullary cavity, spaces of spongy bone and central canals.
What are the two types of marrow?
Red and Yellow
Which marrow forms red, white blood cells and platelets?
red marrow
In whom would you most likely find red marrow?
in infants
What does yellow marrow store? What can yellow marrow turn into?
fat. ; red marrow if needed.
When calcium levels are low, _________ activity is stimulated, to release calcium from the bone salts. What hormone stimulates this?
osteoclast; Parathyroid
When calcium levels are high, ____________ (thyroid) stimulates osteoblasts activity and bone formation.
calcitonin
What 6 minerals are stored in bones?
Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, and Carbonate Ions.
Where are the paranasal sinuses located? What are they lined with? What are they connected to? What else do they do?
The cranium ; mucus lined ; connected to the nasal cavity ; They reduce weight in skull, and alter sounds
The frontal bone contains how many sinuses?
2
What bone has the external auditory meatus?
Temporal
What bone has the sella turcica? What gland is in it?
sphenoid ; pituitary
Where is the cribriform plate located? What passes through the foramina in the plate?
ethmoid ; olfactory nerves
The 10 properties of connective tissues? (at least be able to recognize)
1. most abundant tissue. 2. Bind stuctures. 3. Support and protect. 4. Framework. 5. Fill spaces. 6. Store fat. 7. Produce blood cells. 8. Protect against infection. 9. Aid in tissue repair. 10. Abundant in ECM
What are the 3 main components of ECM?
1. Complex of protiens and glycoproteins. 2. Ground Substance. 3. Fluid
Within the ECM, describe the proteins and glycoproteins? (4 parts)
1. Collagen -fibrous protein. 2. Proteogylcans - fribrous. 3. Fibronectin - fibrous. 4. Integrins - attachment protein.
The ground substance in the ECM does what 3 things?
1. Binds. 2. Support medium. 3. Transport medium for molecule.
These types of connective tissue cells remain in tissue for extended periods? Name 2.
Fixed. ; Fibroblast and Mast cells
Describe fibroblast.
Most common fixed cell, large star shaped and they produce fibrous proteins.
Describe mast cells. What 2 things do they release and what do they do?
Widely distributed, large and near blood vessels. ; Release heparin - limits blood clotting / histamine - dialates small blood vessels, creating inflamation.
What type of cells move in and out of tissues, in response to injury or infection? Name one.
Wandering cells ; Macrophages
What do Macrophages start out as? Describe them.
White blood cells. ; Numerous, can detach from their resting places on fibers and move, can phagocytize parts of things or whole things, scavengers of foreign particles, and fight infections.
Name 3 connective tissue fibers.
Collagen, Elastic Fibers, and Reticular Fibers.
What is the most abundant connective tissue fiber? Thick threads of what? Grouped in what? Elastic? Flexible? Major component of what?
Collagen ; Thick threads of collagen protein ; grouped in long parallel bundles, flexible but NOT elastic, great tensile strength, major component of tendons and ligaments.
What are elastic fibers composed of? What kind of fibers? Compare to Collagen. Elastic? When force is reduced they do what? Found in what tissues? Called what and why are they called that
elastin ; branched ; weaker than collagen ; yes ; return to shape ; found in tissues that require stretching ; called yellow fibers, because they give tissues a yellow color.
Reticular fibers are what kind of fibers? How are they branched? What kind of networks do they form? Where are some found
Thin collagenous fibers ; highly branched ; form delicate supporting networks ; some found in internal organs.
Name all 3 connective tissues and all 3 types of each.
1. Loose - areolar, adipose, reticular. 2. Dense - dense regular, dense irregular, elastic. 3. Specialized - Cartilage, bone, and blood.
Areolar is what type of tissue? What does it form? It bind what to what? What does it fill? What does it underly?
Loose connective. ; forms delicate thin membranes ; binds skin to underlying organs ; fills spaces between muscles ; underlies most epithelium (the outermost layer exposed to the environment)
What kind of tissue is adipose tissue? It is initially what? It stores what? What is different about its nuclei? What does it do to other cells?
Loose Connective Tissue ; initially fibroblast-like cells ; store fat ; nuclei pushed to side ; Crowd other cell types.
What kind of tissue is reticular tissue? What kind of fibers? How are they organized? Where would you find some?
Loose connective tissue ; thin collagenous fibers ; in a meshwork. ; framework for some internal organs, like liver, spleen, lymphatic
What type of tissue is dense regular? What kind of fibers? It is strong how? Component of what? Has a few what?
Dense connective tissue ; many closely packed thick collagenous fibers. ; has great tensile strength ; component of tendons and ligaments. ; a few elastic fibers and a few fibroblasts.
Dense irregular connective tissue has what kind of fibers? They resist what? Component of what? Where are they found?
Thick and interwoven, randomly organized collagenous and elastic fibers. ; resist pulling ; component of dermis ; found in ligaments of the vertebral column
Cartilage is what type of tissue? Is it soft or rigid? What does it provide? What else does it do?
Specialized connective tissue ; rigid ; provides support framework and attachement ; protects underlying tissues ;
Cartilage cells are called _________ found in _________.
chondrocytes ; lacunae
Cartilage is covered by a connective tissue called ____________ which contains _____________.
perichondrium ; blood vessels
____________ diffuse through the ___________ substance of cartilage from the ______________ blood supply.
Nutrients ; ground ; perichondrium
What distinguishes the 3 types of cartilage? What are the 3 types of cartilage?
The ECM ; 1. Hyline cartilage, elastic cartilage, adn fibrocartilage.
What is the most common cartilage type?
hyline cartilage
What has very fine collagenous fibers in its ECM and looks like glass?
hyline cartilage
What cartilage type is very tough, a shock absorber, and has many collagenous fibers?
Fibrocartilage
What cartilage type forms the pads between bones?
Fibrocartilage
What cartilage is a framework for ears and larynx?
Elastic Cartilage
In _________ cartilage, the ECM is a dense meshwork of elastic fibers.
elastic
____________ bones begin as hyline cartilage.
embryonic
What cartilage forms support rings and forms on articulating surfaces of joints?
Hyline cartilage.
What cartilage has very fine collagenous fibers in its ECM?
Hyline cartilage