Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

180 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
An official pardon.
Ten Percent Plan
- Southerners had to swear an oath of loyalty to the US and accept a ban on slavery to recieve amnesty.
- Once 10 percent of voters in a state made these pledges, they could form a new government.
Wade-Davis Bill
- a state had to ban slavery and a majority of adult males in the state had to take the loyalty oath before it could rejoin the Union
- only southerners who swore that they had never supported the Confederacy could vote or hold office
13th Ammendment
- made slavery illegal throughout the United States
Freedmen's Bureau
- purpose was to provide relief for all poor people - black and white - in the south
- distributed food to the poor and supervised labor contracts between freedpeople and their employers
- assisted black war veterans
- helped promote education in the South
- helped establish colleges for blacks
John Wilkes Booth
- shot Lincoln while he was watching in the theatre
- was a southerner who opposed Lincoln's policies
Andrew Johnson
- Lincoln's vice president
- became president after Lincoln died
Black Codes
- laws that greatly limited the freedom of blacks
-any black who couldn't prove he/she had a job could be arrested.
-Blacks were prevented from owning guns.
-Blacks couldn't rent property in cities.
Radical Republicans
- wanted southern states to change much more than they already had before they could return to the Union
Thaddeus Stevens
- leader, along with Charles Sumner, of the Radical Republicans
Civil Rights Act of 1866
- provided blacks with the same legal rights as whites
14th Ammendment
1. all people born or naturalized within the US (except Native Americans) are US citizens
2. guaranteed to citizens equal protection of the laws
3. said that states couldn't "deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law"
4. banned many former Confederate officials from holding state or federal offices
5. made state laws subject to review by federal courts
6. gave Congress the power to pass any laws needed to enforce any part of the ammendment
Reconstruction Acts
- divided the South into 5 districts with a US military commander in control of each district
- military would remain in the South until the southern states rejoined the Union
15th Ammendment
- gave black men in the US the right to vote
- northern-born Republicans who moved the the South after war
- called this because they carried their possessions in bags made from carpeting
White Southern Republicans, mostly white farmers who had supported the Union during the war
Hiram Revels
- became the first black in the US Senate
- born free in North Carolina
Blanche K. Bruce
- grew up in slavery in Virginia
- first black to serve full term in the US Senate
- became important Republican in Mississippi
Ku Klux Klan
- a secret society that oppposed civil rights, particularly suffrage, for blacks
- used violence and terror against blacks, white Republican voters, and public officials
General Amnesty Act of 1872
allowed former Confederates, except those who had held high ranks, to hold public office
Panic of 1873
- this hurt the Republicans
- marked the beginning of a severe economic downturn
Civil Right Act of 1875
guaranteed blacks equal rights in public places such as theaers and public transportation
Compromise of 1877
- Hayes vs. Tilden for president
- Tilden got more votes and Hayes got more electoral votes, but there was a compromise that Hayes would become president if the federal troops removed from the South
Democrats that regained control of state governments in the South
Poll tax
- a special tax people had to pay before they could vote
- was an effort to deny the vote to blacks
the forced but legal seperation of whites and blacks in public places
Jim Crow Laws
laws that required segregation
Plessy vs. Ferguson
- court case
- Homer Plessy, a black, refused to leave the whites-only section of the train car
and was arrested because of the Jim Crow law that said that he couldn't do that
- Plessy's lawyers said that this violated his right to equal treatment under the 14th Ammendment
- Court's decision was to allow segregation
- sharing the crop
- landowners provided land, tools and supplies while sharecroppers provided labor
Henry W. Grady
- was a leader of the New South movement
- "built" textile mills and other factories for cotton production and cheap and abundant labor
Mary Noailles Murfree
- wrote popular short stories and novels about the moutntain people of eastern Tenessee
Joel Chandler Harris
- wrote short staories about fictional plantation life
Charles W. Chesnutt
- was a black who wrote short stories that are collected in the book called _The Conjure Woman_
Treaty of Fort Laramie
- first major agreement with the Plains Indians
areas of former Indian homelands to which the US government restricted the Indians
Crazy Horse
- a Sioux Chief that killed cavalry troops which built forts than ran through their hunting grounds to protect miners that crossed the Great Plains
Treaty of Medicine Lodge
- US government was asking southern Plains Indians to move off their lands and these people agreed to live on reservations in this treaty
George Armstrong Custer
- his soldiers found gold in the Dakota Territory and wanted the Sioux to sell their reservation land there
- he was killed in the Battle of the Little Bighorn
The Battle of the Little Bighorn
-was the worst defeat the US Army had suffered in the West
- the Sioux's last major victory
Ghost Dance
- a religious movement begun by Wovoka that predicted the arrival of a paradise for Native Americans
- US Army thought this would cause a Sioux uprising
Massacre at Wounded Knee
- was the last major event of war on the Great Plains
- a Chiricahua Apache who left the reservation, avoided capture until he surrendered to the US Army and ended the Apache armed resistance
Sarah Winnemucca
- become one of the first Native Americans to call for reforms
Dawes General Allotment Act
- tried to lessen the tradition influences on Indian society by making land ownership private rather than shared
- also promised to make American Indians citizens
- failed to improve Indians' lives
Comstock Lode
- a bonanza (large deposit of precious ore) that made mining a big business in the West
A large depsoit of precious ore
-communities that sprang up when a mine opened
-dangerous places b/c they lacked basic law and order
Pony Express
- a company that used a system of messengers on horseback to carry mail btwn relay stations on a route
Transcontinental railroad
- a roailroad that would connect the East and West
Racific Railways Acts
gave railroad companies loans and large grants which could be sold to pay for constructin costs
Leland Stanford
the Central Pacific's part-owner that praised Chinese workers but paid them less than whites
Texas longhorn
- Spanish cattle that mixed with English breeds
- ideal for Great Plains environment because they needed very little watter and could survive harsh weather
Joseph McCoy
- business, build pens for cattle in Abilene, Kansas
- the Kansas Pacific RR went through Abilene, so cattle could be shipped from there
Cattle Kingdom
- area of ranches for cattle stretching from Texas north to Canada
Open range
- public land throughout the Cattle Kingdomthat rnachers grazed their huge herds on
Elizabeth Collins
- started ranching and was nicknamed the Cattle Queen of Montana
Range rights/water rights
- farmers bought these and these let hem use the scarce water as well as the land around it
- this way, ranchers could cut out competition by stopping farmers and other ranchers from using the water
(Mexican) Vaqueros
Cowboys borrowed many of their techniques from these
Nat Love
- a black cowboy who wrote an autobiography about his life as a cowboy
- gathering the cattle together
- during spring roundups, cowboys branded young calves and horses with the ranche's unique mark to prevent stealing
Cattle Drive
-one of the most important and dangerous duties
-cowboys herded cattle to the market or to the northern Plains for grazing during these
Chisholm Trail
- one of the earliest and most popular routes for cattle drives
- ran from San Antonio, Texas, to the cattle town of Abilene, Kansas
Range wars
- wars between large ranchers, small ranchers, and farmers
- farmers and small ranchers cutting the fences and moving onto the land or stealing cattle led to this
Homestead Act
- gave government-owned land to small farmers (160 acres of land for a small registration fee)
Morrill Act
- granted acres of federal land to the states
- states are supposed to sell the land and use the money to build colleges to teach agriculture and engineering
- Southern blacks that made a mass departure from the South to the west because of the promise of land
- farmers who broke up the very hard sod with John Deere's deep steel plow
Dry Farming
a method that shifted the focus from water-dependent crops to hardier crops like a type of red wheat
Cyrus McCormick
made his fortune desigining, building and selling farm equipment
Second Industrial Revolution
was a period of rapid growth in US manufacturing in the late 1800s
Bessemer process
a method of blasting hot air through melted iron to quickly remove waste material
Orville and Wilbur Wright
-were bicycle makers who built a light-weight airplane with a small gas-powered engine
-made the first piloted flight in a gas-powered plane
Thomas Alva Edison
-investigated the practical uses of electricity
-was awarded many patents
an exclusive right to make or sell an invention
Free enterprise
meant that the government usually does not interfere with business
people who start new businesses
are formed by selling shares of stocks to stockholders
-stockholders in a corporation usually get a share of company profits, based on how much stock they own
Andrew Carnegie
-one of the most admired business leaders of the late 1800s
-was in the steel production business
-biggest supporter of philanthropy
Vertical integration
owning the businesses involved in each step of a manufacturing process to lower production costs
John D. Rockefeller
-was in the oil-refining business
-big supporter of Social Darwinism
-owned Standard Oil Company
-used both vertical and horizontal integration
Horizontal integration
owning all the businesses in a certain field
-a grouping together of a number of companies under one board of directors
-often tried to get rid of competition in their industry and to control production
Social Darwinism
said that "survival of the fittest" also determined whno would succeed in human society
giving money to the needy
Sherman Antitrust Act
-outlawed monopolies and trusts that restrained trade
-was difficult to enforce, and corps and trusts continued to grow in power
Frederick W. Taylor
-worked to find ways to increase production and lower costs
-published _The Principles of Scientific Management_ which defined workers as parts of the production process than as people
Collective bargaining
the method of workers acting collectively, or together, to have a much greater chance of winning labor disputes
Knights of Labor
-founded by Uriah Stephens
-leader became Terence V. Powderly
-first nation labor union in the US
Terence V. Powderly
became the leader of the Knights of Labor
Mary Harris Jones
-Unions organizer
-organized many strikes among workers
-fought to protect workers' rights
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
-organized individual nation unions
-limited its membership to skilled workers
-led by Samuel Gompers
Samuel Gompers
leader of the American Federation of Labor (AFL)
Haymarket Riot
-union members in Chicago who went on strike for an 8-hour workday
-several people were killed and many injured in this incident
-many linked this to the Knights of Labor so their membership fell quickly
people hwo oppose all forms of government
Homestead strike
-setting: Carnegie Steel Company in Homestead, Pennsylvania
-a protest against Frick's plan to add new machinery that would replace workers
Pullman strike
-setting: Pullman's Palace Car Company in Pullman, Illinois
-this strike stopped when workers who stopped Pullman cars could be charged with the federal crime of interfering with US mail
Old Immigrants
-people who came to the US before 1800s
-mostly from Britain, Germany, Ireland and Scandinavia
-most Protestants, some Catholic
New immigrants
-people who came to he US during the 1800s
-many came from southern and eastern Europe
-many came for freedom and enonomic opportunity from the Second Industrial Revolution
-an area below deck on a ship's lower levels near where the steering mechanisms for the ship are located
-many immigrants travelled here when they came to the US
Benevolent societies
immigrant communities which offered help in cases of death, sickness, and unemployment
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
-banned Chinese people from coming to the US for 10 yeears - was extended later on
-first time people of a specific nationality were banned from entering the US
Immigration Restriction League
-formed by nativists
-wanted all immigrants to prove that they could read and write in some language before being allowed into the US
neighborhoods outisde of downtown areas
Settlement houses
-neighborhood centers in poor areas staffed by professionals and volunteers
-offered education, recreation, and social activities for poor people
Hull House
-founded by Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr
-most famous settlement house
-in Chicago
-fcused on the needs of families, especially immigrant families
Jane Addams
Ellen Gates Starr
they both founded the Hull House in Chicago
Oliver Hudson Kelley
-toured the South and saw how the country's farmers suffered
-he and some government clerks founded the National Grange
National Grange
was a social and educational organization dedicated to improving farmers' lives
Interstate Commerce Act
provided some consistent national regulations on trade between states
Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
made to ensure that railroads charged fair rates and did not favor big shippers
Free coinage
both gold and silver were made into coins
Gold standard
-only gold could back US currency
-money supply tended to grow more slowly than the country's population because of this
William Jenning Bryan
-politician who wanted free silver coinage
Benjamin Harrison
-won over President Cleveland
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
increased the amount of silver the government bought for coinage
Farmers' Alliances
-political organizations formed by farmers to increase their power
-efforts on getting legislation passed to help farmers by regulating railroads and lowering interest rates
Populist Party
-party for the farmers and reformers
-high point of farmers' political activity
James B. Weaver
-Populist candidate for president (never won but got some votes)
Political machines
powerful organizations that used both legal and illegal means to get candidated elected to public office
-leaders of political machines
-traded favors for votes
William Marcy Tweed
- Tammany Hall boss
-stole money from the city treasury, but got convicted and died in jail
Rutherford B. Hayes
-Republican presidnet
-promised to reform the civil service
James A. Garfield
-Republican president
-was shot (twice)
Chester A. Arthur
-Garfield's vice president
-became president after Garfield was shot
-Republican reformers that supported Democratic candidate Grover Cleveland
Grover Cleveland
-Democratic candidate for president
-became president twice
Benjamin Harrison
-Republican president after Cleveland's first term of office
-supported the Sherman Antitrust Act
William McKinley
-Republican president after Harrison
-was killed during second term
Pendleton Civil Service Act
-set up a merit system controlled by the Civil Service Commission
-supported by President Arthur
-reformers in the late 1800s that began working to solve problems caused by rapid industrial and urban growth
journalists that exposed the muck (filth) of society
Ida Tarbell
-wrote articles attacking John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil Company
Direct Primary
let voters choose candidates for public office instead of allowing party leaders to select them
17th Ammendment
allowed Americans to vote directly for US senators
allows voters to sign a petition asking for a special vote to recall (remove) an elected official before the end of his/her term
allows voters to propose a new law by getting signatures on a petition
allows voters to approve or dissaprove a low that has already been proposed or passed by state or local governments
Robert M. La Follette
took on the power of the party bosses in Wisconsin
-developed the Winsconsin Idea
Wisconsin Idea
a program of reforms that set out to reduce the influence of political machines and to make state government more efficient in meeting the people's needs
New York State Tenement House Act
-made it illegal to build poorly lit and airless tenements
-required new building to have better ventilation, running water, and toilets
John Dewey
-important philosopher and educator who changed American education
-wanted children to learn problem-solving skills, not just to memorize their lessons
Joseph McCormack
-leader of AMA (American Medical Association)
-brought local medical organizations together and supported laws protecting health
Florence Kelley
-led the progressive fight against child labor
an economic system in which the government owns and operates a country's means of production
Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)
-brought together many workers who weren't welcome in the AFL
-led by William "Big Bill" Haywood
-goal: bring workers into 1 large union that would try to overthrow capitalism
William "Big Bill" Haywood
leader of the IWW (Industrial Workers of the World)
Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
-founded by reformers to united to fight against alcohol abuse
-Frances Willard was president of this
-many state and local governments passed laws restricting the sale of alcohol because of the pressure from this
Frances Willard
-president of WCTU
18th Ammendment
outlawed the production and sale of alcoholic beverages in the US
National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA)
-begun by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony
to help get the vote for women
Carrie Chapman Catt
-Fought successfully for women's suffrage in the West.
-Became president of NAWSA
Alice Paul
-Left NAWSA and founded NWP (National Woman's Party).
National Woman's Party (NWP)
-Founded by Alice Paul.
-Used parades, public demonstrations, and more controversial methods to draw attention to its cause.
-Party used hunger strikes, pickets, and forms of civil disobedience to build support.
Nineteenth Ammendment
-Gave the vote to women in the US.
Booker T. Washington
-Tried to improve the conditions of freedmen.
-Enoucraged freedmen to improve their own educational and economic ewll-being rather than fight discrimination and segregation.
-Made the speech Atlanta Compromise.
Atlanta Compromise
-Made by Booker T. Washington.
-Washington shared his philosophy whites and blacks being seperate but also uniting.
Ida B. Wells
-Black journalist.
-Wrote about the mob lynching of black men.
-Helped start an international crusade against lynching.
W.E.B. Du Bois
-Took a direct approach to fighting racial injustice; wanted faster change and disagreed with Booker T. Washington's views.
-Part of the Niagara Movement.
-Wrote many articles and speeches.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
-Founded by Du Bois and other reformers.
-Worked to bring racial inequality to the attention of whites.
-Won the case of _Guinn v. United States_
_Guinn v. United States_
-Outlawed the grandfather clause, which had kept blacks from voting.
-Won by the NAACP.
Theodore Roosevelt
-Vice president of McKinley; took office after McKinley was shot.
-Used the Square Deal policy.
-Persuaded Congress to pass the Pure Food and Drug Act.
-Strongly favored conservation.
Square Deal
-The belief that the interests of businesspeople, laborers, and consumers should be balanced for the public good.
-Used this in the coal miners' strike.
-A formal process to settle disputes.
-Roosevelt threatened to take over the mines during the coal miners' strike unless managers agreed to this.
Pure Food and Drug Act
-Stopped the anufacture, sale, or transportation of of mislabeled or contaminated food and drugs sold in interstate commerce.
-Passed by Congress during Roosevelt's term.
-Protection of nature and its resources.
-Roosevelt strongly favored this.
William Howard Taft
-Vice president of T. Roosevelt; became president after him.
-Opposed socialism; favored business regulation.
-Started the dollar diplomacy.
-Angers the Progressives because he didn't do much that they wanted.
Election of 1912
-T. Roosevelt: Bull Moose Party. Plan: New Nationalism.
-Woodrow Wilson: Democratic Party. Plan: New Freedom.
-William Taft: Republican.
-Eugene V. Debs: Socialist.
-Woodrow Wilson won because the Republicans were split between Taft and T. Roosevelt.
Bull Moose Party
-Nickname for the Progressive Party.
-Roosevelt and his followers started this party in the Election of 1912.
Woodrow Wilson
-Democratic candidate for president; plan: New Freedom (called for government action against monopolies and lower tariffs).
-Won the election.
Underwood Tariff Act
-Backed by Wilson.
-Brought the lowest tariff rates in many years.
Sixteenth Ammendment
-Allows the federal government to impose direct taxes on people's incomes.
Federal Reserve Act
-Created a national banking system called the Federal Reserve.
-Enabled the government to try to prevent sudden changes between boom and bust in the economy.
Clayton Antitrust Act
-Had the power to stop unfair trade practices by investigating corporations and issuing restraining orders.
Louis Brandeis
-Progressive lawyer appointed by Wilson.
-First Jewish Supreme Court justice.
Keating-Owen Child Labor Act
-Helped to be passed by Wilson.
Adamson Act
-Limited the workday for railroad workers to eight hours.
-The practice of building an empire by founding colonies or conquering other nations.
William H. Seward
-Secretary of State.
-Arrange the purchase of Alaska from Russia for a cheap payment.
-Avoiding involvement in the affairs of other countries.
McKinley Tariff
-Allowed all countries to ship sugar duty-free to the US.
-Passed by Congress during McKinley's term.