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103 Cards in this Set

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That quality of a literary work that makes the reader or audience uncertain or tense about the outcome of events. This makes the reader ask "What will happen next?"
Suspense
A struggle between two opposing forces or characters in a short story, novel, play, or narrative poem. Conflict can be internal or external, and it can take one of these forms:
1. Person against another person
2. Person against society
3. A person against nature
4. Two elements or ideas struggling for mastery within a person
5. Person against supernatural
Internal/External Conflict
A series of related events, in which, each event in a plot "hooks" our curiosity and pulls us forward to the next event to satisfy that curiosity, and the order in which this happens
Plot/Plot Sequence
The highly charged moment when the suspense is greatest, when we finally discover how the conflict is going to work out. In most stories this is the moment that brings about some change in the situation, the main character, or both.
Climax
Clues the writer plants that foretell what's coming next
Foreshadow
A scene in a short story, novel, play, or narrative poem that interrupts the action to show an event that happened at an earlier time
Flashback
The personality a character displays; also, the means by which an author reveals that personality
Characterization
Using humor to ridicule
Satire
The events that make up the plot are closely related: One event cause another event which causes you to ask youself: "How did that discovery affect the girl in this story?"
Cause and Effect
An ending that makes sense but could not have been predicted
Surprise Ending
The order in which the events occured
Chronological Order
n.: obstacles; things that restrain or prevent an activity
Hindrances
n.: balanced arrangement
Symmetry
n.: fear; bewilderment.
Consternation
v.: drew back or crouched in fear and helplessness
Cowered
v.: causing to occur at the same rate or time.
Synchronizing
System for exercising authority
Government
The idea that people can govern themselves
Democracy
A state ruled by the noble class
Aristocracy
Those who were granted certain rights and responsibilities
Citizens
Predictable patterns found by using reason and intelligence
Natural Laws
Government controlled by one person
Monarchy
A form of government in which power rests with citizens who have the right to elect the leaders who make government desicions
Republic
Aristocractic branch of Rome's government
Senate
He began a series of political reforms that greatly increased citizen participation in Athenian government
Solon
He worked toward making Athens a full democracy by reorganizing assembly. He is reffered to as the founder of democracy in Athens
Cleisthenes
He strengthened Greek democracy by increasing the number of paid public officials and by paying jurors
Pericles
The first great philosopher, he encouraged his students to examine their most closely held beliefs and used a question-and-answer method.
Socrates
Student of Socrates, he wanted society goverened not by the richest and most powerful but by the wisest
Plato
Religion of the Hebrews
Judaism
The Jews written code of laws
Ten Commandments
The religion founded by Jesus
Christianity
Leaders and teachers who were believed by the Jews to be messengers from God
Prophets
One chruch that developed from Roman Christianity, and most powerful institution in Europe in the Middle Ages
Roman Catholic Church
Period of European history, from about 1300-1600, which renewed interest in classical culture led to far-reaching changes in art, learning, and views of the world
Renaissance
16th-century movement for religious reform, leading to the founding of Christian churches that rejected the Pope's authority
Reformation
the political and economic system of the Middle Ages
Feudalism
This reflected customs and principles established over time.
Common Law
"Great Charter" -- a document guaranteeing basic political rights in England, drawn up by nobles and approved by King John
Magna Carta
The right to have the law work in known, orderly ways
Due Process of Law
England's national legislature
Parliment
The claim tht a king's power came directly from God
Divine Right
The bloodless overthrow of the English king James II and his replacement by William and Mary
Glorious Revolution
Where the powers of the rulers are restricted by the constitution and the laws of the country
Constitutional Monarchy
A formal summary of the rights and liberties considered essential to the people
Bill of Rights
Political and economic system of the Middle Ages
Feudalism
This reflected customs and principles established over time
Common Law
"Great Charter" -- a document guaranteeing basic political rights in England, drawn up by nobles and approved by King John
Magna Carta
England's national legislature
Parliment
Where the powers of the rulers are restricted by the constitution and the laws of the country
Constitutional Monarchy
A formal summary of the rights and liberties considered essential to the people
Bill of Rights
An intellectual movement where thinkers attempted to apply the principles of reason and the methods of science to all aspects of society
Enlightenment
Agreement by which people define and limit their individual rights, thus creating an organized society
Social Contract
He gave views on human nature and believed that people were by nature selfish and ambitious, and the only government that could control selfish ambitions was absolute monarchy. Believed in a social contract between the people and an authoritarian ruler
Thomas Hobbes
He believed that the government's fundamental purpose is to protect the rights of the people, and that all people had, by nature the right to life, liberty, and property.
John Locke
The idea that all human beings had, by nature the right to life, liberty and property
Natural Rights
He proposed tolerance, freedom of religion, and free speech.
Voltaire
He was considered the most free thinking of the Enlightenment, he considered the only legitimate governmant one that came from the consent of the goverened
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
He concluded that liberty, (your natural right) could best be safeguarded separation of powers
Baron de Montesquieu
The division of government into three separate branches:
1. Legislature- to make laws
2. Executive- to enforce them
3. Courts- to interpret them
Separation of Powers
Colonists' fight for independence from Great Britain that began with the Battle of Lexington and Concord
American Revolution
A government in which citizens elect representatives to make laws and policies for them
Representative Government
System of government in which power is divided between a central authority and a number of individual states
Federal System
French war for democracy that began in 1789 and ended with the overthrow of the monarchy
French Revolution
An international organization whose goal is to work for world peace and the betterment of humanity
United Nations
A major change in European thought, starting in the mid-1500s, in which the study of the natural world began to be characterized by the careful observation and the questioning of accepted beliefs
Scientific Revolution
A polish cleric and astronomer, he reasoned that the stars, the earth, and the other planets revolved around the sun, the heliocentric theory
Nicolaus Copernicus
Idea that the stars, the earth, and the other planets revolved around the sun
Heliocentric Theory
A brilliant mathmatician and Brahe's former assistant, continued Brahe's work after his death and mathmatically confirmed that Copernicus' theory was correct
Johannes Kepler
17-year-old Italian student who disproved many of Aristotle's theories, and discovered the law of the pendulum
Galileo Galilei
A logical procedure for gathering and testing ideas.
1. Develop a question
2. Form a hypothesis
3. Test the hypothesis in an experiment or on the basis of data
4. Analyze and interpret the data to reach a new conclusion
5. Prove or disprove your hypothesis
Scientific Method
He urged scientists to experiment theories formed by Aristotle and other ancient philosophers because their ideas were based solely on abstract theories
Francis Bacon
He developed analytical geometry which linked algebra and geometry. This provided an important new tool for scientific research. He also believed that scientists needed to reject old assumptions and teachings
Rene Descartes
Scholars generally relied on ancient authorities, church teachings, common sense, and reasoning to explain the physical world
Old Science
Scholars used observations, experimentation, and scientific reasoning to gather knowledge and draw conclusions about the physical world
New Science
He discovered gravity
Isaac Newton
Social critics of this period in France
Philosophes
An Italian philosophe that railed against common abuses of justice and he believed that the degree of punishment should be based on the seriousness of the crime, he also said that people deserved the right to a speedy trial
Cesare Beccaria
She argued that women should recieve the same rights as men
Mary Wollstonecraft
A social gathering of intellectuals and artists, like those held in homes of wealthy women in Paris and other European cities during the Enlightenment
Salons
A grand, ornate style
Baroque
Relating to a simple, elegant style (based on ideas and themes from ancient Greece and Rome) that characterized the arts in Europe during the late 1700s
Neoclassical
Monarchs who embraced the new ideas of the Enlightenment
Enlightened Despots
King of Prussia who granted religious freedoms, reduced censorship, and improved education. He also reformed the justice system and abolished the use of torture, he called himself "the first servant of the state"
Frederick II
He controlled Austria and was the most radical royal reformer, he introduced legal reforms and freedom of the press, he also supported freedom of worship, and he abolished serfdom and ordered that peasants be paid for their labor with cash
Joseph II of Austria
She ruled Russia with absolute authority, but took steps to reform Russia, she recommended allowing religious toleration and abolishing torture and capital punishment, however her enlightened ideas changed after an uprising from the serfs
Catherine the Great
Document written by Thomas Jefferson that was based on the ideas of John Locke and the Enlightenment
Declaration of Independence
He wrote the Declaration of Independence
Thomas Jefferson
A violent protest in Massachusetts where debt-ridden farmers, led by a war beteran named Daniel Shays
Shays's Rebellion
System where each branch of the federal system could check the actions of the other two
Checks and Balances
The first ten ammendments to the U.S. Constitution, which protect citizens' basic rights and freedoms
Bill of Rights (U.S.A.)
A word used pejoratively to describe works whose purpose is to evoke strong emotion
Sentimentality
An exaggerated flat character
Caricature
A song of religious rejoicing, usually associated with Christmas
Carol
An object, person, or place that has a meaning in itself and that also stands for something larger than itself, usually an idea or concept; some concrete thing that represents an abstraction
Symbol
A comparison of tow things that are basically dissimial but are brought together in order to create a sharp image
Metaphor
Prose writing whose purpose is to get reponses from the reader
Evocative Prose
A subtle sometimes humorous perception of inconsistency in which the significance of a statement or event is changed by its content
Irony
The audience knows more about a character's situation that the character does
Dramatic Irony
A naive hero whose view of the world differs from the author's and reader's
Structural Irony
A discrepancy between what is said and what is really meant
Verbal Irony
A comparison between two different things using either like or as
Simile
The position or vatage point from which the events of a sotry seem to come and are presented to the reader
Point of View