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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How does the nile flow
Nile flows from south to north
what is a delta
Delta is a series of small branches of the Nile into the Mediterranean
Upper and Lower egypt are
Southern= Upper
definition of cataracts
Cataracts- blocks the water in the Nile
how did the people get to Egypt and how didn't they go to egypt
-Tells that people didn’t come from the south to get to Egypt by the cataracts
-Came from Canaan (Jordan, Israel and Lebanon)
Language is ...
Language is partly Semitic and Hamitic
Semitic- Hebrew and Arabic
Northern Africa is Hamitic
why did people settle near the nile
Bands of people lived near the Nile b/c North Africa got drier
what did people write on if they were poor and wealthy
-Most people used potsherds to write- called ostracon/ostraca
-papyrus was written on like paper
language was difficult or easy to learn and why
-The language was difficult to learn and only scribes learned it
-Didn’t have an alphabet
ancient scribes were (gender...)
where did they study
-Were men and lived in the house of life
-Only for upperclassmen

-Per ankh- house of life
what are biliteral signs
Biliteral signs-had two letters for a picture
triliteral signs
Triliteral signs- had three letters for a picture
Phonetic Complements
-Phonetic Complements- three character
- the first one stood for the first letter, -the two lined next to it stood for the other two letters
-Determinatives- put after the sentences to determine what they mean;
-ex. a name with a man symbol after it means it’s a boy’s name
what didn't they have...
-Ideograms- the oldest signs that are just pictures meaning whole words

-Had no alphabet/vowels
Early Dynastic Period- 1st dynasty
Early Dynastic Period- Dynasties 1 and 2 (3,100 BC)
-Started building pyramids- mastaba
-Killed wife and servants only in 1st dynasty when the king died but went willingly
-They would have a celebration, and pass out from drinks and then would die
-Narmer reunited the upper and lower egypt
Early Dynastic Period-2nd dynasty
-had statues of the servants doing things and were smaller
-Thought that the Pharaoh could call on them in the afterlife
Old Kingdom- 3rd dynasty
The Old Kingdom- Dynasties 3-6
-First built a pyramid by making mastabas on top of mastabas- called step pyramid
-Imhotep made it for Djoser
Old Kingdom- 4th dynasty
-Senefru built the first one too steep,
-second one was built like the first then changed angles,
-finally got it right
-(bent and red pyramid)
Wife Hetep-Heres tomb was robbed
Old Kingdom- 5th dynasty
-Pyramids were smaller because Egypt becoming bankrupt
-And they deteriorated b/c not built as good
Old Kingdom- 6th dynasty
-Pepi II ruled for 96 yrs, the longest rule
-Egypt started to fall apart
-Matrilineal society- things passed down through the inheritance
First intermediate period
First Intermediate Period- Dynasties 7-10
-Decentralization- isn’t centralized
-Drought->no taxes-> cant give money to governors and they start to rule so pharaoh didn’t have power
-Became chiefdom from the drought and famine
who built the pyramids
No slaves- farmers built them
why did they build them
-Three months period where the water rises and drowns the crops
-Pharaoh keeps some stored away, trade for food and working of the pyramids
-Totally dependent on the Pharaoh or else couldn't live
didn't make as many because...
-Became very expensive-4th dynasty
-Had to feed farmers and skilled village people year round, caused them to be broke
who else built the pyramids
-Found people that worked on the pyramid year round and were skillful
the three people after they died
BA- bird with the head of the person
KA- twin/double of the decease
Were not spirits
belief of death
-No word for death
-Didn’t believe the soul left the body
-Did the same in an afterlife as you did on earth except forever
-important to preserve the body so when the ba, ka and shu left
-they knew which body was theirs when they came back
-Also put statutes in the tomb incase something happened to the body so they could animate them
how they mummified the bodies
-Used a naturally occurring salt
-natron- to preserve the body; sucked out liquids
-Took out internal organs except the heart-called eviscerating
what was in the tombs
-Had a false door made of stone for the bks to go through
-Showed a picture of them eating-thought words were magic- thought they would come to life
-Had an offering table with food
the ceremony before the burial
-River and Canal brought the body down to the valley temple
-Had an opening of the mouth ceremony- priest dressed in an anubis(jackal), held ankh to the mouth so they could eat, speak and breath
-Then the passageway to the tomb was sealed
the "cheat sheet"
where they were
Book of the Dead- cheat sheets of how they would be judged
The cheat sheet was either written on the tomb walls or a piece of paper stuck with the mummy
judgement( w/monsters)
Had to go through 12 gates, each had o monster that would ask them a question and if they didn’t answer it, they would be eaten
hall of judgement
-would take your heart and weigh it against the flower of truth
-weighed, could say something in your defense (cheat sheet)
characters that judged you
-Osiris- god of the dead, looked like a vertebrate
-Thoth- god of writing, scribes, wisdom appeared as an ibris (bird with long beak) wrote down the judgement; pharaohs that died to be Osiris
-Anubis- god of mummification
-Maat- goddess of truth, seen with a feather,
final outcome
-If heart was heavier, would be devoured by a crocodile shaped figure, but all
-paintings depicted that they were equal