Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/10

Click to flip

10 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the difference between somatic and visceral pain?
Visceral pain is usually more dull, POORLY LOCALIZED.

Diaphragm pain localizes to shoulder.
What are the 4 steps in pain?
Transduction from nerve endings (nociceptors)

Transmission of signal

Processing of pain in the cortex

Descending modulation (via norepinephrine and serotonin)
What is a C fiber?
small diameter, unmyelinated, dull aching pain. Upregulated by bradykinin, histamine (inflammatory cytokines). FOUND IN LAMINAE II
What is an A-delta fiber?
Small diameter, fast conduction, MYELINATED. Sharp, immediate pain.

FOUND IN LAMINAE I, V
What is the gate control theory of pain?
A-beta fibers carry vibration, position information.

Incoming pain stimuli can be gated by other incoming stimuli. Incoming A-beta fibers of peripheral nerve can alter sensitivity of post-synaptic cells to painful stimuli from C and A-delta fibers.
What are the important ascending tracts for pain?
DC, spinothalamic, spinoreticular, spinomesencephalic
What two molecules modulate pain sensation downward?
Serotonin (raphe nucleus in medulla) and norepinephrine (locus ceruleus in pons)

STIMULATION OF THESE TWO AREAS CAUSES ANALGESIA.
What receptors are located on nociceptors?
Nociceptors are the nerve endings of A-delta and C fibers)

GABA (inhibitory), bradykinin, prostaglandins (excitatory)
What is c-fos?
It is a gene that is expressed preferentially during pain stimulation.

When patients are given analgesia, these individuals do not express c-fos. Local anasthesia, same thing.

HOWEVER, general anesthesia, normal c-fos expression.

Nerve block = ABOLISH c-fos

FOUND IN LAMINAE I, V (A-delta) and II (c)
Difference between men and women in pain?
Men have higher pain threshold. Men respond to analgesics at mu receptor. Woman respond at kappa receptor.

Difference in receptor response is a reason why women need more morphine to get to same pain score than men.