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32 Cards in this Set

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Antigen Variation
P. 217
What is antigenic variation?
When pathogens change their proteins (surface, flagellar, etc) so that they can escape the immune system's antibodies.
What are two mechanisms of antigenic shift?
DNA re-arrangement, and RNA re-arrangement
What type of antigenic shift does Borrelia have?
It changes it's surface proteins and causes replacing fevers - each new fever corresponds to new growth of the bacteria due to new antigens.
What bacteria has antigenic shift in its flagella?
Salmonella has two types of flagella, and it can shift between them.
What type of shifting does n. Gonorrhea undergo?
There is DNA recombinations that cause its pillus to be hypervariable.
African sleeping sickness is caused by what bacteria?
Trypanosome brucie
What kind of antigen shift does t. Brucie have?
The Trypanosomes shift the proteins on their membranes in a cyclic, pre-programmed manner, leading to cyclic fevers.
Influenza has both antigenic shift and antigenic drift. What is the difference between the two?
Drift is a minor change in surface glycoproteins that allows new stains of flu to avoid host defense. Shift is a major change where new surface proteins are created.
What is the mechanism of antigenic shift in influenza?
when two types of flu infect the same cell and trade pieces of RNA new proteins are made.
Autoantibodies
P. 217
ANA is associated with?
SLE
What is specific for SLE
anti ds-DNA, anti-Smith
What is associated with drug-induced lupus?
antihistone
What is Rheumatoid Factor
anti-IgG, associated with Rhematoid arthritis
What is Anti-neurophil associated with?
vasculitis
What indicates CREST scleroderma?
Anti-centromere antibody
what is anti-mitochondrial associated with?
primary billiary cirrosis
What indicates celaic sprue?
anti-gliaden antibodies
What is anti-basement membrane associated with?
Goodpasture's syndrome
What indicates pemphigus vulgaris?
anti-epithelial antibodies
What is anti-microsomal associated with?
Hashimoto's thryroiditis
Transplant Rejection
P. 217
What is hyperacute rejection?
This occurs when the host has pre-formed antibodies to the donor
How fast does this occur?
Within minutes of the transplant
Can it be controlled?
No. IT is innate because the antibodies are already into the blood.
What is acute rejection?
a cell mediated type II cytotoxic response that occurs in the weeks following the rejection
What molecule causes this reaction?
the foreign MHC on the transplant
Can it be controlled?
Yes, with immunosuppressive drugs.
What is chronic rejection?
Antibody mediated vascular necrosis that happens over months/years
Can it be controlled?
No - the damage is permenant.
What is graft-versus-host disease?
This occurs when graft T-cells proliferate in the immune-suppressed host and attack the host cells as foreign.