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145 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The hip is able to ____ rotate more than ____ rotate.
externally (better); internally (worse)
The GREATER trochanter striking ____ limits abduction.
The SI (sacroiliac) is a ___ (size?) joint with ____ mobility (usually __º).
SMALL; little; 4º
Mobility of the SI joint increases for _______, and often causes LOW BACK PAIN!
pregnant women
The SI joint fuses in __th decade for men, __th decade for women.
4th-men; 5th-women
The SI joint has significant ligamentous support ______.
posteriorly-more support
There are 3 gluteal lines on the ileum: ____, ____, & ____.
anterior posterior, and inferior (posterior near top)
The gluteus minimus arises between _______ lines.
anterior & inferior gluteal lines (hint: MINIMUM-inferior)
The gluteus medius arises between _______ lines.
anterior & posterior gluteal lines
The gluteus maximus arises from ______.
ilium-POSTERIOR to POSTERIOR gluteal line
The hamstring muscles arise from the ___.
ischial tuberosity
You sit primarily on your ____.
ischial tuberosity
The ______ is also called "the ______ of the gluteal region"
Greater Sciatic Foramen; Gibralter
The GREATER sciatic foramen allows for structures to leave ____ & enter _____.
pelvis; gluteal region
The LESSER sciatic foramen allows for some structures to leave ____ & enter _____.
gluteal region; perineum
Various ______ (what muscle action?) stem from ISCHIAL TUBEROSITY.
Lateral Rotators
What lateral rotator stems from ischial spine?
Gemellus (superior); (hint: superior--spine)
The ___ & ____ ligaments run at 90º angles to one another.
sacrotuberous & sacrospinous
The _____ has a tendon over the acetabulum.
rectus femoris
The rectus femoris has 2 heads/tendons: ____ & _____.
reflected & straight
The quadratus femoris runs from _____ to _____.
ischial tuberosity intertrochanteric crest (quadrate tubercle of i.c.)
The quadratus femoras acts as a ______ rotator of the thigh.
The ______ is the largest muscle in the body.
gluteus maximus
The gluteus maximus has a _____ configuration.
downward, medial to lateral
The glut. max. arises from ____, ____, ___, and deeply from ______.
posterior to posterior gluteal line, sacrum, coccyx
deep from sacrotuberous lig.
1/4 of the gluteus maximus inserts into ________.
femur on 3rd trochanter
3/4 of the gluteus maximus inserts into _____.
IT tract
The Tensor Fascia Lata attaches to the _________.
IT tract
The IT tract is a thickening of ________.
fascia lata
THe superior gluteal nerve innervates ______, ____, & ____.
gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, & tensor fascia lata
The gluteus maximus is innervated by ______.
inferior gluteal nerve
The 1º function of the glut. maximus is short _______.
burst of extension in thigh
Patients with an injured gluteus maximus have a hard time _________.
standing from a seated position
Another action of gluteus maximus (besides short bursts of thigh exten.) is:
lateral (external) rotation of hip
The tensor fascia lata's role is as an _____ rotator.
The tensor fascia lata pulls the IT band _______.
The tensor fascia lata's 1º role is to assist ___ & ___ in HIP FLEXION.
iliopsoas & rectus femoris
Gerdy's tubercle is where IT band attaches to _______.
The gluteus medius originates b/tw ____ & _____.
anterior & posterior gluteal lines & above anterior glut. line
The gluteus MEDIUS runs all the way up the _______.
iliac crest
Gluteus MEDIUS inserts into ______, making it a good ________.
greater trochanter (just lateral to greater trochanter); good ABDUctor
The gluteus MINIMUS arises from _______ & attaches to ______.
b/tw anterior & inferior gluteal lines; GREATER trochanter
The gluteus MINIMUS attaches ________ (more or less anteriorly than MEDIUS?).
greater trochanter; more anterior (less lateral)
The gluteus MINIMUS ASSISTS in _____ (what action?).
The gluteus MINIMUS' 1º responsibility is ______ rotation of hip.
What muscle should you hit doing a gluteal injection?
gluteus MEDIUS
The piriformis arises from _______.
anterior sacrum (usually 2nd-4th antevertebral foramena)
The piriformis' action is _____ rotator of hip.
Deep to gluteus maximus & medius are the _____ rotators.
The LATERAL ROTATORS of hip are the ____, 2_____, 2____, & ____.
piriformis; obturators; gemellus; quadratus femoris
The piriformis fills the majority of the diameter of the _________.
greater sciatic foramen
The superior gemellus arises from __________.
ischial spine
The obturator internus arises ______.
inferior to ischial spine
The obturator INTERNUS takes a 90º turn & attaches into _____.
greater trochanter
THe inferior gemellus arises from _____.
ischial tuberosity
The quadratus femoris arises from ______.
ischial tuberosity
The quadratus femoris runs ______ & attaches to _____.
LATERALLY; quadrate tubercle (on intertrochanteric crest)
The TRICEPS COXAE is made of the _____, ____, and ____ muscles.
superior & inferior gemella muscles; obturator internis
The triceps coxae attach to _______.
medial aspect of GREATER TROCHANTER
The Obturator EXTERNUS leaves the ______ aspect of pelvis & runs 'deep to' ____.
EXTERNAL; quadratus femorus
After running deep/anterior to quad. femoris, obturator EXTERNIS attaches to: ____
intertrochanteric fossa (medial to greater trochanter
The obturator INTERNUS is covered by _____.
tendinous arc of the levator ani
The obturator INTERNUS leaves ____ to ischial spine & takes a 90º turn.
The ___, ___, & ___ attach into medial aspect of greater trochanter.
triceps coxae (ob. internus, 2 gemelli muscles)
Viscera or fat can herniate above and below piriformis in ______.
supra & infrapiriform foramen
The obturator internus has a small _____ deep to the bend over the bone (ishium).
The cluneal nerves are important _____ nerves of posterior gluteal region.
The SUPERIOR cluneal nerve arises from ___ rami of ___.
DORSAL RAMI of L1-L3 spinal nerves
The MIDDLE cluneal nerve arises from ___ rami of ___.
DORSAL RAMI of S1-S3 spinal nerves
The INFERIOR cluneal nerve arises from ___ rami of ___.
The INFERIOR cluneal nerve actually comes from branch of sacral plexus called ____.
posterior cutaneous femoral nerve
The ___ nerve is the largest nerve in the body.
The sciatic is the main component of the _____ plexus.
Sciatic nerve leaves sacral plexus and passes ____ to piriformis.
Deep as well as INFERIOR
The sciatic nerve enters the gluteal region by crossing over _________.
LATERAL ROTATORS such as Quadratus Femoris
The sciatic nerve runs ____ to gluteus maximus & 1/2 between ____ & _____.
ANTERIOR; ischial tuberosity & greater trochanter
The sciatic runs down posterior thigh ____ to hamstring muscles.
The sciatic nerve is 2 nerves encapsulated commmon fascia: _____ & _____
tibial nerve & common fibular (peroneal) nerve
The 2 nerves of the sciatic usually split ____ (where?).
posterior knee
The _____ is the larger component of the sciatic. It runs _______.
tibial; MEDIAL
An injury to the sciatic would cause significant damage in _______.
__________ could kill sciatic nerve if injected in wrong gluteal area.
Penicillin (neurotoxin)
Just inferior to the iliac crest is the _____ muscle.
gluteus MEDIUS
The sciatic nerve exits the _____ foramen just ____ to piriformis.
greater sciatic; inferior
In 12% of people, sciatic splits near piriformis & ____ then PIERCES the piri.
common peroneal
In 0.5% of people, sciatic splits early & common peroneal runs ____ to piri.
In peple w/early splitting sciatic, ____ is a possibility. What is relief?
entrapment of common peroneal nerve; cutting the piriformis to relieve presure
The superior gluteal nerve is located ______ to piriformis.
The superior gluteal nerve innervates the ___, ___, & ____.
tensor fascia lata, gluteus medius & minimus
The inferior gluteal nerve is located ______ to piriformis.
The inferior gluteal nerve innervates the ___.
gluteus maximus
The _____ & _____ innervates the quadratus femoris & inferior gemellus.
nerve to the quadratus femoris & inferior gemellus.
The quadratus femoris & inferior gemellus are ______ rotators.
The ______ innervates the obturator internus & superior gemellus.
nerve to obturator internus
Which is more medial? n. to obturator internus or n. to quad. femoris & inf. gemellus
nerve to obturator internus
The _____ nerve is even more medial than the nerves to triceps coxae.
The pudendal nerve gives off ____ & ____ branches.
inferior rectal; perineal
After giving off inf. rectal & perineal branches, the pudendal continues as ______.
dorsal nerve of penis
The posterior cutaneous femoral nerve gives off ____ & branches to ______.
inferior cluneal nerve; branches to perineum
Why might someone have tingling/tightness in skin of genitalia after sitting?
After sitting long time ,the perineal branch of the post. cutaneus may be compressed against ischial tuberosity.
Injury to inferior gluteal nerve may cause ______.
difficulty getting out of chair or climbing stairs (these motions EXTEND HIP)
Injury to superior gluteal nerve may cause ______.
excessive pelvic tilt during swing phase (of walking) on opposite side
Trendelenburg sign is when pelvis tilts downward on ___ (injured/not injured) side.
not injured
Injury to superior gluteal nerves may also prevent ____.
you from standing on one foot & maintaining horizontal balance of pelvis
The 3 arteries of the glut. region that arise from the internal iliac are ______.
superior & inferior gluteal; internal pudendall
___ artery contributes to anastomoses of thigh (w/ perforating & circumflex aa)
Inferior gluteal artery
The inferior gluteal artery supplies the largest branch to the ____________.
sciatic nerve (called arteria nervi sciatica)
The true hamstring muscles arise from the ______, cross 2 joints (hip & knee) & attach to ________.
ischial tuberosity; tibia or fibula
The hamstrings ________ the thigh & _____ the legs.
extend; flexes
True hamstrings are innervated by the _______ nerve.
The biceps femoris arises from 2 heads & inserts _____.
proximal portion of the tibia & fibula.
The long head of the biceps femoris arises from _______.
The short head of the biceps femoris arises from ______.
posterior femur
What joints does the short head cross?
The ________ innervates short head of biceps femoris.
common peroneal branch of sciatic
The semi_____ contributes to pes anserine.
The semimembranosis reinforces Posterior Knee w/ ______.
oblique popliteal ligament
The addutor magnus is almost a true hamstring b/c _____ & _____.
arises from ISCHIAL TUBEROSITY; has a component innervated by TIBIAL NERVE
Adductor magunus isn't really hamstring because _____.
it doesn't cross the knee joint (can't flex leg)
The adductor hiatis is formed by the tendon of ____.
adductor magnus
The _______ is a diamond shaped area on posterior aspect of leg.
popliteal fossa
Borders of popliteal fossa: medial:______ lateral:_____ inferior:____
M-semimembranosus & tendinosus; L-biceps femoris tendon; I-heads of gastrocnem
2 branches of sciatic nerve found in popliteal region: ___ &_____
common fibular (peroneal) nerve; tibial nerve
What is the order of contents (POST. to ANT.) in popliteal fossa?
P-->A: NERVES of the sciatic; Popliteal VEIN; Popliteal ARTERY
The popliteal artery is a common place to find _________.
an aneurysm
The semitendinosus & membranosus muscles _______ rotate the leg.
The biceps femoris _______ rotates the leg.
laterally (attaches laterally)
The plantaris & popliteus arise from _____ & are innervated by ______.
lateral, distal aspect of femur; tibial component of sciatic
The plantaris' tendon is often used for ______. Why?
tendon transplant--it is super long
The popliteus is first mus. to contract when ___ knee from fully extended position.
The popliteus _____ the knee so that the hamstrings can take over flexing.
The _____ & _____ are the only 2 muscles to pierce a joint capsule.
popliteus & long head of biceps brachi
The 2 thickenings in the posterior knee are ___ & ___.
oblique popliteal ligament (of Winslow);
arcuate popliteal ligament
The popliteus becomes deep to _____ before entering the knee joint.
arcuate popliteal ligament
There are ____ genicular branches of the POPLITEAL artery. What?
superior medial & lateral geniculars; inferior medial & lateral geniculars; middle genicular
The middle genicular a. comes off popliteal _____ & then does what?
anteriorly & perpindicular; enters joint capsule & supplies cruciate ligaments
The popliteal aretery leaves the fossa & splits into ____ & _____.
anterior & posterior tibial branches
The anterior tibial branch of popliteal aretery goes through _______ to where?
interosseus membrane; anterior part of leg
What forms genicular anastomosis around the knee?
5 gen. aa branches; desc. gen branch of fem. a; desc. gen. branch of lat.fem.cut. a; ant. recurrent branch of ant. tibial a.
The descending genicular branch of the femoral artery branches from _______. When?
femoral artery BEFORE passing through adductor hiatus
Descending genicular branch of the lateral fem. cutaneous a also called ___.
descending branch of lateral circumflex femoral artery
The 5 genicular arteries are supported & reinforced by _________.
recurrent branch of anterior tibial artery
The small saphenous vein lies on _____ surface of leg & usually drains into ______.
posterior; popliteal vein
The small saphenous vein is homologous to the ______
basilic vein
A veces the small saphenous v. will travel more superiorly & drain into ____.
inferior gluteal vein