Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

174 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Devarication, or ________, is caused by _____________.
muscle fibers that have atrophied and form intervals of connective tissue in between fleshy fibers usually due to (multiple)birth
The fundus of the uterus is __________ (superior/ inferior) to the oviducts' entrance.
The internal os of the uterus is located about where the ___________ is.
THe cervix is the lower 1/___ of the uterus.
1/3; surounded by internal & external cervical os (osteum--opening)
The lower 1/3 of the vagina is innervated by ________.
The pudendal nerve supplies __________ & _________.
external genitalia & external perineum
The _________ of the vagina is vaginal cavity that surrounds the cervix as it protrudes into vag. orfice.
The oviducts (fallopian tubes) are _____ cm long.
The initial portion of the oviduct is through the _____ of the uterus.
wall (mural)
The isthmus (which means _____) is about ____ cm long.
contraction; 2
The ampulla represents ____ (how much) the length of the f.t. and is where ________ usually occurs.
fertilization & ectopic pregnancy
The ______is the distal end of the oviduct. It has _____ processes, one which is attached to the ____.
The suspensory ligament of the ovary connects ________ & covers _______.
ovary to pelvic wall;
ovarian vessels as they approach ovary
The ovarian ligament connects ___________ at the opposite end of ovarian vessel entrance.
ovary to uterus
The artery of the round ligament, or _____ will bleed profusely.
When the round ligament is stretched (i.e. during expansion of womb in pregnancy),____ expands also.
Artery of Samson.
There is lots of ________ associated w/round ligament.
THe cardinal ligament connects ______ & provides ____% of the ligamentus support.
cervix to pelvis walls; 90%
Cardinal ligament = _________ = _______.
transverse cervial ligament;
Mackenrodt's ligament
A _________ is dye injected into vagina to determine if female is cause of infert. (due to constriction) WHY NOT USE AIR???
hysterosalpingogram; female peritoneal sac open to outside, so air would go to diaphragm & cause pain
The anterior wall of the vagina is ______ than the posterior (longer or shorter).
An amateur abortionist may cause PERITONITIS if he isn't aware of _____ uterus.
The _______ may be used as an approach to ovaries (like retreiving egg for i.v. fertilization).
The rectouterine pouch is also called ______, or ____.
Pouch of Douglas; cul-de-sac
Vaginal prolapse--3º. The complete prolapse is called ________.
A weakening of the anterior wall of vagina in which the bladder passes through is called a _________.
cystocele (cyst-fluid filled sac)
A weakening of the posterior wall of vagina in which the rectal wall passes through is called a _________.
rectocele (usually caused by multiparity)
The uterine artery divides into ascending & descending branch. Ascending goes to _____. Desc. goes to ____.
uterus; vagina
The descending branch of uterine artery is also called the _________.
vaginal branch---NOT the same as vaginal artery
The vaginal artery most commonly arises from _______, but can be _______.
from uterine artery
The vaginal artery runs ____ (superior/inferior) to URETER, while the uterine artery runs _______.
The ovarian vessels anastamose with ________ along ovarian ligament and/ or oviduct.
uterine vessels
Why might a hysterectomy involve clamping of the entire internal iliac artery? (as opposed to just uterine)
b/c the uterine artery anastamoses w/ ovarian artery and could circumvent blood flow.
The ovarian vessels cross the ureter from ____-____ (medial to lateral). Why is this important?
During pregnancy (3rd month), ovarian vein is engorged and could stenose ureter.
The LATERAL boundry of the PRESACRAL PLEXUS is ______.
The ureter can also be stenosed by the ______ during pregnancy.
umbilical artery
What does the location of ovaries near the ureter have to do with anything?
ovarian cyst could stenose ureter & cause hydronephrotic condition
The ovary lies in fossa between _____ & ______.
external iliac;
internal iliac
The ureter crosses the pelvic brim at _______.
bifurcation of common iliac into external & internal
The bladder is _______ (related to peritoneum).
subperitoneal (extraperitoneal)
If the bladder is empty it resides in the _______. If full it resides in ______.
true pelvis;
false pelvis, as high as umbilicus
In the male the size of the bladder is affected by ________.
rectal distention
The bladder is held in place by the ____ or ___ (females), or the ____ (males).
pubovesical, pubocervical;
The bladder is held in place at the ________.
The bladder lies in the _______ space or space of _______.
All of the urinary system is ___________.
The interior of the bladder is made up of the _______ muscle.
detrusal muscle (detruse = to push out)
The interior of the bladder is innervated by the ________, also called the _________.
pelvic splanchnic nerves;
nervi eregentes (erection)
The pelvic splanchnics (nervi eregentes) also carry the afferent & efferent limbs of ___________.
bladder emptying reflex arc
Pelvic splanchnic nerves that are injured in a male could cause problems w/ ___ & ____.
erection & micturition
The bladder trigone is the smooth area of the bladder, bounded by ______ & ______.
ureters (ureteric orfices) & urethra
The urethra passes out of the bladder at ______.
the neck
The bladder is innervated by ________. Afferent or efferent?
both afferent & efferent
The urethra opens into the ______, which is a space in between the ______.
vestibule; labia minora
The male pelvic organs are the: ____, ____, ____, & ____.
vas deferns, seminal vesicle, prostate & urethra
A vasectomy usually occurs _______ to the superficial inguinal ligament.
The vas deferens is ________ (in relation to peritoneum) and runs ____ to ureteric openings in posterolateral wall.
The seminal vesicle lies on the _______ of the bladder.
base (posterior wall)
The fundus of the bladder usually means the ____ wall of the bladder.
inferior aspect of posterior
The prostate is located _____ to the bladder.
On the ________ aspect of the bladder, the vas deferens enlarges to form _____.
posterior; ampulla (dilation)
The vas deferens has a blind, lobulated DIVERTICULUM called the ____.
semnal vesicle
Spermatazoa are stored in the _____, NOT the seminal vesicles!
The seminal vesicles produce lots of SEMEN, mainly made up of _______.
alkaline substance
The ______ & _____ form the EJACULATORY DUCT, which passes through the wall of prostate gland.
ductus deferens; duct of seminal vesicle
The base (superior) of the prostate is related to the _______, while the apex (inferior) is related to the _______.
seminal vesicle; urogenital diaphragm
The prostate has 4 lobes: ___, ___, & ____.
anterior; posterior; 2 lateral
The ________ add quite a bit of volume to semen.
prostatic glands
The ejaculatory duct (combo of vas def. & seminal vesicle) passes through ______, dividing it into ___.
POSTERIOR LOBE; median lobe & posterior lobe proper.
The _____ lobe is usually the lobe that enlarges in BPH (Benign Prostate Hypertrophy).
MEDIAN (formed by the ejac. duct passing through posterior lobe).
Benign Prostate Hypertrophy is quite common ________, and can occlude the _____.
the older you get; urethra
Prostate cancer is most commonly found in ____ lobe.
posterior lobe PROPER (behind ejac. ducts)
The male urethra has 3 portions: _____, _____, & _______.
prostatic, membranous, spongy
The membranous portion of the urethra passes through the _________. It is surrounded by _______.
urogenital diaphragm (deep perineal pouch); fibers of external urethral sphincter
The external urethra sphincter is innervated by the ______________.
pudendal nerve
The spongy urethra contains a 90º bend, which if punctured can tear the ______ and cause ______.
corpus spongiosum just below the urogenital diaphragm; urine can leak externally
The bulbourethral glands enter into the _______ part of the urethra.
proximal portion of spongy urethra
The urethral crest is located ______. In the middle of the crest is the ______, where the ejac. ducts w/semen open onto.
on the posterior surface the prostatic urethra; Seminal Colliculus (little hill) or VERUMONTANUM
The verumontanum has a openings for ________ & ______.
prostatic utricle; ejaculatory ducts
The ______is homologous to the uterus sloughing off in females.
cells which line the prostatic utricle (located in verumontanum of prostatic ureter)
When doing TURP (resectioning urethra), the prostate is removed _____ (where)?
just inferior to verumontanum; going above would interfere with emptying of semen
When doing prostate exam, you can feel the _______ while pushing anteriorly.
seminal vesicle & vas deferens on posterior aspect of bladder
The only structure more inferior than the rectum is the ________.
anal canal
The rectum is situated to fit well in the ________, decreasing ________ prevalance.
SACRAL CONCAVITY; rectal prolapse (because it isn't straight up and down).
The rectum ________ (has or doesn't have) a mesocolon.
DOESN'T HAVE (it comes off sigmoid colon, which does have one)
The ampulla usually lies ___________ to three rectal shelves.
The rectal shelves are also called ______, or ______.
shelves of Houston; rectal valves (inferior, middle, & super)
The function of the rectal shelves is in ___________.
holding up fecal material
The anal canal has 3 areas: _______, ________, ______.
cutaneous zone, transitory zone, mucous membrane
The __________ is a watershed zone which lies between ____ & ______.
pectinate line; true mucous membrane & transitional zone
________ is a synonym for transitional zone.
Pecten (pectinate line)
The mucous zone has 5-10 ______ produced by _______.
vertical columns; tributaries to the superior rectal vein
The superior rectal vein is a tributary to the ______.
inferior mesentaric vein
_______ & ________ veins anastamose in the area of the mucous zone.
middle and inferior rectal
Dilations (varicosities) of ____________ result in hemmoroids.
middle & inferior rectal veins
Internal hemmoroids occur _____, while external occur ______ (where?).
above pectinate line; below pectinate line
External hemmoroids are innervated by ___________.
pudendal nerve, which is somatic (PUDENDAL = PAINFUL)
Internal hemmoroids are innervated by __________.
autonomic nerves, which are visceral = no pain
______ is another name for hemmoroids.
Lymph inferior to pectinate line drains to ____; lymph superior to pectinate line drains to _______.
superficial inguinal lymph nodes; internal iliac (pelvic) lymph nodes
The pectinate line is dubbed a watershed because _______.
lymph above goes to one place (int. iliac/pelvic); lymph below goes to another (superfic. ing. nodes)
The _________ is similar to the pectinate line in being a watershed line.
hymen in the vagina
The internal anal sphincter is a thickening of the ____, and has ____ innervation.
internal circular muscle; AUTONOMIC (sympathetic & parasympathetic)
The external anal sphincter is supplied by the ____.
The sigmoid colon becomes the rectum @ what vertebral level?
The internal anal sphincter is composed of ____ muscle.
Parasympathetic innervation causes ____ w/internal anal sphincter.
inhibition leading to relaxation
Sympathetic innervation causes ____ w/internal anal sphincter.
The puborectalis is confulent with _________.
the deep portion of the external sphincter
Where is the sinus of Morgagni?
just medial to internal anal sphincter
Which muscle crosses the pelvic brim?
The superior rectal artery is a continuation of the ____.
inferior mesenteric
What are the 4 arterirs that cross the pelvic brim?
superior rectal; gonadal; median sacral; internal iliac
The middle rectal artery comes off the _________.
internal iliac system
The inferior rectal artery comes off the ______, which comes off the ______.
internal pudendal; internal iliac system
The posterior division of ii artery has ____ PARIETAL branches.
The posterior division of the Internal Iliac is also called the _______.
The anterior division of the ii artery has ___ parietal branches & ___ visceral branches.
3; 4
The internal iliac artery supplies the buttocks by way of ________.
superior & inferior gluteal arteries
The internal iliac artery supplies the perineum by way of ________.
internal pudendal artery
The internal iliac artery supplies the medial thigh by way of ________.
obturator artery
With exception of _______, all pelvic viscera are supplied by branches of internal iliac aa.
OVARIES (ovarian artery--aorta)
When doing a pelvic exoneration, you can clamp both internal iliacs and the ptx will still have lower limbs b/c ___.
lots of anastamoses
The 3 parietal branches of the posterior division if ii artery are: ___, ___, ___.
iliolumbar a, lateral scaral aa, superior gluteal a
The iliolumbar ascends and has a branch that goes to the ______.
The lateral sacral arteries enter the _______.
sacral foramina
The superior gluteal aretery typically passes b/tw ___ & ___ to EXIT the pelvis via ____.
lumbosacral trunk & S1 ventral ramus;
The parietal branches of the anterior division of iia are: ____, ____, & ____.
obturator a, internal pudendal a, inferior gluteal a
80% of the time the obturator a comes off the ___. 20% it comes off the ____.
internal iliac; inferior epigastric artery
The obturator passes through the obturator canal to enter ________.
medial thigh
The internal pudendal artery EXITS pelvis through _______ with _____ nerve.
The inferiro gluteal aretery EXITS pelvis through _____ and emerges in ____ region w/inferior gluteal nerve.
The ___ & _______ arteries are ususally considered the 2 trminal branches off of ant. division of iia.
inferior gluteal; internal pudendal
The 4 visceral branches of the anterior division of the iia are: ___, ___, ___, ___.
umbilical a; middle rectal a; inferior vesicle/vaginal a; uterine a
The obliterated umbilical a becomes the __________.
Medial umbilical ligament
If you see an artery coming off iia & directly going into rectum, it's the ______.
middle rectal a.
The middle rectal a. arises near _____, and runs across the ______ to middle portion of rectum.
internal pudendal & inf. gluteal aa; pelvic floor
The inferior vesicle a. runs along with the ____ nerves, which go to the ____.
cavernous nerves; corpora cavernosa & corpus spongiosum (bring about erection)
The inferior vesicle a. supplies the ______, _____, & _____.
inferior bladder; prostate; seminal vesicles
The 'female inferior vesicle a.' is the _______. It supplies _____ & _______.
vaginal artery; vagina & bladder
The vagina is supplied by the _____ & ______(arteries).
internal pudendal (lower portion)& vaginal (upper portion) arteries
The uterine artery runs with the ______ at the base of the cervix.
cardinal ligament
The uterine artery crosses the ____ about 3cm superior to _______.
URETER; ischial spine--careful not to clamp it during hysterectomy
The ovarian artery follows the __________ as it travels within mesoovarium.
suspensory ligament
Veins of the pelvis are VALVELESS, so venous blood is based on _________.
pressure gradient.
The _____ plexus of veins (which has LOTS of blood) is important to be careful with during prostatectomy.
Prostate cancer can spread lymphatically or _______, which means _______.
venously--if it takes venous route it will go to epidural plexus & to brain. This is why they look in brain for p.c.
The lymphatics of the pelvis are: superficial & deep _______; external & internal ______; & _________.
inguinal lymph nodes; internal iliac lymph nodes; common iliac lymph nodes
The pelvic lymph nodes drain into the PARAAORTIC, or _____ lymph nodes.
The only nerve found in the pelvis from the lumbar plexus is the _______.
The sacral plexus is formed on the surface of the _____.
piriformis (hint: P's--Piriformis, Posterior wall)
A pregnant mother could have great pains if the baby's head is pressed against ____.
sacral plexus (on piriformis muscle)
The sacral plexus if formed by ____-____.
lumbosacral trunk-S5
The inferior gluteal artery usually passes between __-__
The sacral plexus is _____ (where?) to the piriformis.
The sciatic nerve is formed by ___ - ____.
If an MD goes too deep on hysterectomy, the nerves to the _____ can be damaged, & ____ can occur.
pelvic diaphragm; prolapse
The PUDENDAL NERVE is almost the _________ nerve supply of the PERINEUM. It is S_-_.
sole somatic;
The ___________ nerves bring about erection and come from S2-4.
pelvic splanchnic--PARASYMPATHETIC
The pelvic splanchnics carry bladder reflex arc fibers, which have _______ limbs.
afferent & efferent
The sacral splanchnics (S2-4) provide _____ innervation.
The pelvic splanchnics arise from _________ of spinal chord levels S_-S_.
interomedial cell columns; 2-4
The pelvic splanchnics provide parasympathetic component to the _______.
inferior hypogastric plexus
The inferior hypogastric plexus supplies p.s. innervation to ____ & _____.
non-vascular smooth muscle to hindgut & pelvic organs; erectile tissue
The inferior hypogastric plexus contans 3 types of nerve fibers: ___, ____, ___.
parasympathetic; sympathetic; visceral afferent fibers
The preaortic plexus changes name to the ________ at ___.
superior hypogastric plexus (presacral plexus; L5, S1
The presacral plexus (superior hypogastric plexus) continues down on either side & becomes ____.
hypogastric nerves
The hypogastric nerves reach the ________ and are now called the INFERIOR hypogastric nerves.
lateral wall of rectum
The main sympathetic input for inferior hypogastric nerves comes from _________, not ________.
hypogastric nerves (which came from superior hypotastric, which came from preaortic); NOT SACRAL SPLANCHNIC
The pelvic splanchnics (S2-4 ventral rami) sned 3-10 branches to the ______.
inferior hypogastric plexus
Besides symp & p.s., the inferior hypogastric plexus also has _____ nerve fibers from pelvic organs.
visceral afferent fibers & visceral afferent pain fibers
The visceral afferent fibers that enter the inf. hypo. plexus can follow the pelvic splanchnics to _________.
back to sacral portions of spinal cord.
Sometimes the visceral afferent fibers can enter the _________ and run up to _____ before entering spinal cord.
superior hypogastric plexus; T10-L2
So, pain fibers may enter the spinal cord ________ (where).
from sacral region (S2-4) up to lumbar & even thoracic region