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85 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
__________ nerve is the major nerve of the perineal structures.
Borders of pelvic outlet:
________-anterior; ____-posterior; _______-lateral & ___________.
pubic symphysis; coccyx & inferior part of sacrum; ischial tuberosities; inferior part of ischial ramus.
The perineum is separated supriorly by the ___________.
pelvic diaphragm
The floor of the pelvis is made up of ______ & ________.
coccygeal & levator ani muscles
The pudenal nerves are protected by the ________ posteriorly.
sacrotuberous ligaments
An imaginary line across the __________ divides the urogenital triangle and the anal triangle.
ischial tuberosities (laterally)
The urogenital triangle contains the ____________.
The rectal triangle contains the ____________.
external genitalia;urethra; perineal membrane

rectum; orifice of anus; ischioanal fossa; external anal sphincter
The ischioanal fossa is important in _______ and provides ________ during childbirth.
serious infections;
fat and support for structures
A tear in the perineal body (i.e. during childbirth) is called ______________.
Nowadays they're sometimes done _________ on purpose.
laterally (so they don't damage the central structures).
During childbirth, the urethra is pressed against the ______ & the _______ is pushed posteriorly.
anal orifice
The problem with episiotomies is that they ___________.
weaken the support of the pelvic structure and may cause prolapse later on.
labia majora:________
glans of penis:_______
scrotal sac;
glans of clitoris
body of clitoris:_______
forskin of clitoris:_______
shaft/body of penis;
foreskin (prepuse) of penis
Superficial perineal pouch of female contents: _______, _____, ________, _____
labia majora; labia minor; clitoris (& associated structures); openings of vagina & urethra
Superficial perineal pouch of MALE contents: _______, _____, ________, _____, _____, _______
penis; scrotal sac; crus of penis; bulb of penis; glans penis; perineal body
The crus of the penis is the attached part of the ____________. It is covered in ________.
corpus cavernosum;

The bulb of the penis is the attached part of the ____________.
corpus spongiosum
The PERINEAL BODY is important in muscle attachment that reinforces the ______________.
urogenital triangle
Layers of superficial perineal pouch:
______, then _________.
fatty layer; superficial perineal fascia (COLLE'S FASCIA)
Colle's fascia is continuous with ____________ laterally as you extend around anterior abdominal wall.
Scarpa's fascia
Urethra parts:
passes externally:_______
passes through deep perineal pouch:________
passes through prostate: ___
The deep perineal pouch is _________(larger or smaller) than the superficial perineal pouch.
The deep perineal pouch contains the _____, _____, _____
membranous urethra, bulbourethral gland, external urethral sphincter
The ________ muscle is lateral to the deep perineal pouch.
In a radical prostatectomy, the MD must be careful to spare the _______. Why?
external urethral sphincter;
prevent incontinence
The superficial perineal pouch contains the _____, _____, ______, & _______
The __________ muscle covers the crus of the corpus cavernosum.
ishiocavernosus muscle
The bulbospongiosus muscle covers the ______ in males.
bulb of the penis
The bulbospongiousus muscle crosses to the other side in _____ (males or females). Why does this matter?
Males--reinforces their function (one of which is impeding blood flow out of the penis to maintain an erection).
Deep to membranous portion of superficial pouch is ______ membrane.
The perineal membrane is the inferior border of the ___________. Very tough & fibrous
deep perineal pouch.
The posterior border of the deep perineal pouch is in line with (deep to) the ________.
superficial transverse perineal muscles
The subcutaneous structures of the labia majora are made up of the ____________.
superficial perineal pouch
Extravasation of urine can cause urine to be found in the ______, ____, ____, & ______.
scrotum, superficial perineal pouch, penis itself, anterior abdominal wall
The _____________ separates the superficial pouch from the deep perineal pouch.
perineal membrane
The bulb & glans of the penis are made of ______.
corpus spongeosum
Thte lateral part of the penis is _________. The most posterior part is called ______ (of the penis).
corpus cavernosum;

The erectile bodies of the male include the ______, _______, ______, ______. These also anchor the penis internally!
bulb; glans penis; lateral part-crus (corpus cavernosum).
The erectile bodies of the female include the ____, ___, ____, ___, ___.
glans of clitoris; crus of clitoris; bulb of vestibule (corpus spongiosum); superficial pouch; greater vestibular gland (Bartholian's gland)
Bartholian;s gland (a.k.a. greater vestibular gland) commonly becomes _____.
infected--drainage or removal is required.
The bulbourethral glands are located __________________.
in the deep transverse perineal muscle
The deep arteries of the penis are located in the __________.
corpus cavernosum
The corpus spongiosum surrounds the _________, and is in turn surrounded by ____________.
spongy urethra;
Buck's fascia (deep investing fascia)
Deep perineal pouch also called _______________.
Urogenital diaphragam
The perineal artery divides into ______ (superficially) & _____ (deeply) as it courses superiorly.
posterior scrotal/labial;

dorsal artery of penis/clit.
Female bulbourethral glands called ___________.
Cowper's glands
The pudendal nerve is __________ and made of VENTRAL ANTERIOR RAMI of __-__.
SOMATIC (sensory);
The pudendal nn join together and run out of ________. They then run deep to ______ & enter ___.
greater sciatic foramen;
sacrospinous ligament;
lesser sciatic foramen.
In the lesser sciatic foramen, the pudendal nerve gives off ________ & continues into _______.
inferior rectal nerves;

pudendal canal
The pudendal nerve allows for sensory for the ___________.
external genitalia
THe ________ & _______ separete the greater and lesser sciatic foramen.
sacrospinous & sacrotuberous ligament
THe internal pudendal aretry is a branch of the ____________.
internal iliac
_____, _____, _____, & _____ pass through the pudendal canal.
internal pudendal a., internal pudendal n., pudendal vein, nerve to obturator internus
The ischiorectal fossa's borders:
laterally: ______ &______; superomedially:_____, externally:__________
obturator internus fascia & ischium;
levator ani muscle (both sides);
fat over buttocks
The ischiorectal fossa is significant clinicly because ______________.
heavy bacteria growth occurs here and you can get a severe infection
The pudendal canal lies in the medial fascia of ______.
obturator internus muscle
The inferior rectal nerve is a branch off of the ______.
pudendal nerve
The pudendal nerve travels & changes name to the ______, which gives off ______ (s-ficial) & becomes____ (deep to perineal membrane)
perineal n.
posterior scrotal/labial nn.
dorsal n. of penis/clitoris
A _________ nerve block is commonly used for childbirth.
pudendal--can be palpated by finding spines of ischium & pass needle toward that.
Internal pudendal artery gives rise to _______ aa, then on to _____ & ______ aa.
inferior rectal;
posterior scrotal/labial;
deep artery of penis/clitoris
The lymphatics of the prrineum drain through ______.
inguinal area
Parasympathetic innervation causes _______ & retention of _____ to erectile tissues.
retention of blood
Parasympathetics join ultimately with _____, which continues on to the ____ plexus, then deep around neck of the ______ to the PENIS ITSELF.
inferior hypogastric plexus;
When stimulated, the arteries in the erectile tissue _______. Blood fills them & blood itself blocks _____.
drainage from these tissues

The coiled arteries in erectile tissue are called ________.
The ________ causes the arterioles in erectile tissue to contract, and blood __________.
drains out
The pectinate line divides the ______ (voluntary)& _______ (involuntary).
external anal sphincter;
internal anal sphincter
The internal anal area is supplied by _____ & _____.
The external anal area is supplied by _____.
pelvic sympathetics & parasympathetics;
somatic nerves
The uterine aretery & ureter run in the ________.
inferior aspect of the mesometruim
The portion of mesometrium where the fascia condenses (near ureter & uterine artery) is called the _____.
The pelvic organs lie in between ____& _____.
The space where they lie is filled with _________.
peritoneum & pelvic diaphragm;
pelvic fascia
The ureter attaches _____ (where) to the bladder.
The parietal layer (lies on wall of pelvis) is a continuation of _______.
abdominal transversalis fascia-------at certain points it's continual w/visceral layer
The visceral layer=_____=____
endopelvic or extraperitoneal fatty tissue
The visceral layer acts as a ______ &______ and lies adjacent to organs.
cushion & support
The 3 thickenings of visceral pelvic fascia to support pelvic organs: ___, ___, ____.
pubocervical (pubovesical)lig.; lateral cervical (cardinal lig., transverse lig., Mackenrodt's lig.); uterosacral lig.
The ________ ligament has been cut in order to relieve pain from dysmennorhea.
The pubocervical ligament in female is analagous to _______ in male.
puboprostatic ligament
The parietopelvic fascia has 2 thickenings: _____ & ____. Which is more lateral?
tendinous arc of levator ani (more lateral); tendinous arc of pelvic fascia
The tendinous arc of the levator ani is a condensation of _________, and lies against _______.
obturator internis fascia; walls of pelvis
The tendinous arc of the pelvic fascia covers ______.
pelvic diaphragm
A _______ is an abnormal opening between 2 organs (i.e. _______)
vagina to bladder, urethra, or rectum.
The uterus is ANTEVERTED, which means _________.
it bends ant. in relation to long axis of uterus & long axis of vagina, MAKING IT HANG OVER THE BLADDER
THE UTERUS IS ANTEFLEXED, meaning __________. This occurs at the ____ of the cervix.
the upper part is bent in relationship to the lower part;
___% of women have a retroverted uterus (and possibly retroflexed)
20%--it's now known it brings no problems