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102 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
When is sex determined?
At conception
What determines a female sex?
What is the female XX phenotype?
The DEFAULT phenotype; without signals this is what develops.
What is the signal that sways development from the default female phenotype to male?
HY (aka SRY)
What do the testes secrete as they develop?
-Mullerian inhibiting factor
What do Testosterone and MIF result in?
Virilization and a male phenotype, AND the regression of the uterine ducts
What happens in the ABSENCE of both testosterone and MIF?
Normal INTERNAL + EXTERNAL female genitalia
How many primordial follicles are women born with?
What are the stages in follicular develoment?
1. Primordial
2. Primary
3. Secondary (Antral)
4. Mature (Preovulatory)
What are the 2 most important things in the mature follicle?
-Granulosa cells
What are the Granulosa cells that surround the ovum/antrum?
Steroid producing factories
Why is it good that the granulosa cells surround the ovum?
Because they BATHE it in the high concentration of hormones being produced.
What is left of the follicle after ovulation?
Corpus luteum
What does the corpus luteum produce?
Progesterone (primarily)
What happens to the CL if pregnancy doesn't occur?
It dies and leaves a little scar called corpus albicans
What happens to the CL if pregnancy does occur?
hCG from the placenta rescues the corpus luteum
What are the germ cells in women called?
When do oogonia get produced?
Before birth in utero
What happens to the number of oogonia in the fetus before birth?
-2 mo old fetus has about 6000
-6 mo fetus has ~7 million
-At birth, only ~2 million left - they die off (PCD)
What happens to the number of oogonia in females after birth?
It continually declines until menopause
So is it the menstrual cycle that determines whether oogona will die off?
No; if they're ovulated they'll die (w/out fertilization) but without ovulation they'll die anyway. Independent
What are the FIRST hormones to rise in a female fetus beginning at conception?
hCG + LH + FSH
What is similar about hCG and FSH/LH?
They all are proteins, share homology - with TSH too
What is hCG produced from?
The trophoblast cells - placenta
What is FSH/LH produced from?
The baby
When does hCG peak?
When do FSH/LH peak?
hCG peaks at 10 weeks
FSH/LH peak at 20 weeks
What makes FSH/LH peak and begin to decline in the fetus at 20 wks gestation?
The hypothalamic-pituitary axis turns on:
-GnRH pulses begin
-Stimulate fetal FSH/LH
What is the function of turning on FSH/LH with the pituitary?
Production of oogonia! This is when they begin to increase significantly in number.
What happens to FSH and LH after hte # of oogonia peak at 6 million?
FSH/LH decline
When does FSH/LH surge in the baby?
At 2-4 months
Why do FSH/LH surge in a 2month old?
We're not sure; maybe the sexual differentiation of the brain.
Do FSh/LH levels change during childhood in a female?
No not really
When do FSH/LH begin to climb in a female girl?
At about 10 years
Does the menstrual cycle begin right when FSH/LH levels increase?
No - the hormones increase LONG before menarche occurs.
By what age do most women have normal menstrual cycles?
16 yrs
What are the primary gonadal steroid hormones that occur in women who are not pregnant?
What 2 additional estrogens occur primarily in pregnant women?
Why is progesterone called that?
Because it HELPs (pro) Gestation (gesterone)
Do women make androgens?
Why do women make androgens?
Because in order to make estrogens you HAVE to make androgens
What is SHBG?
Steroid hormone binding globulin
What is SHBG really designed to carry?
Androgens - testosterone and DHT
Does SHBG bind estrogens?
What are MOST of the circulating estrogens bound to?
So what 2 proteins bind
-Estradiol; what does it prefer?
-Cortisol; what does it prefer?
-Progesterone; prefer?
-Estradiol binds Alb + SHBG; prefers to bind to albumin
-Cortisol binds Alb + CBG; prefers to bind to CBG
-Prog binds Alb + CBG; prefers to bind to albumin
What is the signal that turns on puberty?
Bottom line: nobody really knows
What is the current and accepted theory for the puberty signal?
1. Body puts on fat
2. Fat secretes Leptin
3. Leptin reaches brain and shows there's enough fat to support reproduction
What is the first hormone that increases when GnRH pulses begin to increase in a 10yr old female?
What does FSH do when it first increases at puberty onset?
Wakes up the ovary
What are the 2 hormones that go up after the ovary wakes up?
What other hormone do we know is stimulated by gonadotropins?
So what 3 changes occur as a result of the increasing FSH/LH, Estradiol, and GH?
-Growth spurt
-Breast development
-Pubic hair sprouts
What do we NOT see occuring right away? Why?
The menstrual cycle - it takes a long time for the whole system to get its act together.
What are the 3 phases of the menstrual cycle?
1. Menstrual phase
2. Follicular phase
3. Luteal phase
What causes the menstrual phase?
The loss of corpus luteum due to lack of hCG when pregnancy does not occur
What do we call the result of progesterone loss when the CL dies?
Withdrawal bleeding
What happens to the gonadotropin levels at the early menstrual phase?
They increase due to the loss of neg feedback of progesterone when the CL died
What is the purpose of FSH and to a lesser extent LH rising as the menses phase ends?
To stimulate the next round fo 6-8 follicles to mature
What do the follicles begin to do as they mature?
Make estrogen!
How does the estrogen from the maturing follicles affect the pituitary?
The estrogen induces negative feedback and inhibits FSH/LH release
So what's going on with our hormones at the beginning of the follicular phase?
-Follicles are making estrogen
-Pituitary is being inhibited form making LH/FSH
If FSH is what stimulates follicular development, how can the follicle continue to develop when it inhibits pituitary release of FSH?
As one follicle becomes dominant, the estrogen it secretes becomes positive feedback!
When does estrogen production from a dominant follicle become positive feedback?
At midfollicular phase
What does "Positive Estrogen Feedback" by a dominant follicle entail?
1. Local autocrine effects to increase MORE estrogen production
2. Systemic effects by increasing LH receptor expression on the follicle
Why do we say the increased LH receptor expression is a systemic effect?
Because it allows the LH surge to exert its effect when the feedback by estrogen from the dominant follicle switches over to POSITIVE on the pituitary.
So how many cases of positive feedback occur during the follicular phase?
2 - estrogen has both local pos feedback and systemic pos feedback.
What happens at the end of the follicular phase?
Estrogen is stimulating LH/FSH, and LH/FSH are stimulating the follicle to make more estrogen until OVULATION occurs.
What happens to estrogen levels after ovulaton, during the luteal phase? Why?
They fall off significantly because the follicle that was producing estrogen was ovulated!
What happens to progesterone levels after ovulation during the luteal phase? Why?
They surge - because the corpus luteum makes progesterone
What happens to LH/FSH during the luteal phase? Why?
They are low - because progesterone has negative feedback on the pituitary.
What happens at the end of the luteal phase if pregnancy does not occur?
1. No Trophoblast to secrete HcG
2. No rescuing of CL
3. No CL to make progesterone
4. LH/FSH begin to rise
And what do we know LH/FSH do at the beginning/during the menstrual phase?
Stimulate the growth and maturation of more follicle cells!!
If you see the word pulsatile, think:
What are the 2 cells in the "2 cell hypothesis of ovarian steroidogenesis control"?
1. Theca cells
2. Granulosa cells
What are theca and granulosa cells analogous to in males?
Theca = Leydig
Granulosa = Sertoli
What is happening to granulosa cells at the end of the follicular phase?
They are proliferating dramatically due to the pos fb of estrogen from the dominant follicle.
How do you remember what hormones stimulate what steroid sex hormone secreting cells?
Little Figs -> LTL FGS
LH - Theca / Leydig

FSH - Granulosa/Sertoli
What hormone do the Theca cells produce?
If you measure estrogen in ANYBODY what do you know they produced? Why?
Androgens - because they are the precursor for ALL estrogens.
What enzyme is needed to produce estrogens from androgens?
What cells have aromatase?
Granulosa cells
Do granulosa cells always only express FSH receptors?
NO - remember that's the whole point of estrogen pos feedback during midfollicular phase - so that the granulosa cells will respond to the LH surge and make a ton of estrogen.
Can granulosa cells make androgens?
What are the 2 things that the granulosa cells can do?
1. Convert cholesterol to pregnenolone
2. Convert androgen to estrogen
Where do the granulosa cells get androgens to convert to estrogen?
From the theca cells
What are the 3 organs in the female reproductive tract that Estrogen and Progesterone act on?
1. Oviducts
2. Uterus
3. Vagina
What are the 2 components of the oviducts?
-Muscular wall
How does Estrogen affect the oviduct lining and muscular wall? (its high during follicular phase)
Lining: increases cilia formation and activity
Muscular wall: increases contractility
How does Progesterone affect the oviduct lining and muscular wall during the luteal phase?
Lining: increases secretion
Muscular wall: decreases contractility
What are the 3 components of the Uterus?
-Cervical glands
What is the Follicular phase of the menstrual cycle equivalent to in the uterine cycle? What is the luteal phase equivalent to?
Follicular = Proliferative
Luteal = Secretory
So when is Estrogen high?
When is Progesterone high?
Estrogen = proliferative phase

Progest = Secretory phase
What is the effect of estrogen on the uterus endometrium? Myometrium? Cervical glands?
Endo = proliferation
Myo = increased growth and contractility
Glands = watery secretion
What is the effect of progesterone on the uterus endometrium? Myometrium? Cervical glands?
Endo = differentiation and secretion
Myo = decreased contractility
Glands = dense/viscous secretion
Why would you want a watery secretion during the proliferative/follicular phase?
So sperm can get through
Why would you want a dense/viscous secretion during the luteal/secretory phase?
To prevent bacteria from getting in because now fertilization could have occurred.
How does Estrogen affect the vagina?
-Increases epithelial proliferation
-Increases glycogen deposition
How does Progesterone affect the vagina?
-Decreases epithelial proliferation
-Increases epithelial differentiation
So what is the Proliferative phase of the endometrial cycle (in general)? What is it under the influence of? What phase of the menstrual cycle is it equiv to?
The phase of endometrial and myometrial growth
-Under Estrogen influence
-Analogous to the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle
What is the Secretory phase of the endometrial cycle (in general)? What is it under the influence of? What phase of the menstrual cycle is it equiv to?
-Lots of glycogen rich product production - fluffing up the pillow for implantation
-Under Progesterone influence
-Equiv to Luteal phase
If pregnancy doesn't occur what happens?
Menstruation due to loss of progesterone causing withdrawal bleeding.
What 'withdraws' in withdrawal bleeding?
The spiral arteries vasoconstrict