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49 Cards in this Set

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Constitutive enzymes
Produced constantly (present at all times) Not subject to repression. Other enzyme are expressed only as needed.
Repressible enzymes
Enzymes that are subject to repression.
Inducible enzymes
Produced by the cell only when needed.
Operon Model
A set of operator and promotor sites, and the structural genes they control.

check notes
Regulatory gene
Codes for the repressor protein.
Promotor
Site of RNA polymerase attachment.
Operator gene
Acts as a switch. Controls transcription of the structural gene.
Structural gene
Codes for the A.A. sequence of a protein.
Repressible operon
Normally in the "on" mode but is turned off when the gene product is in abundance.
corepressor
The gene product acts as a ___________. This activates the repressor.
DNA technology/Biotechnology
The use of microorganisms, cells, or cell components to make a product.

e.g. foods, antibiotics, vitamins, and enzymes.
Genetic Engineering
The manipulation of genetic material for practical purposes.
Artificial selection
Breed/Culture a naturally-occurring organism/microbe that produces desired product.
Mutation
Mutagens cause _________ that might result in a microbe with a desirable trait.
Site-directed mutagenesis
Change a specific DNA code to change a protein.
Recombinant DNA technology
Techniques for recombining genes from different sources in vitro and transferring this __________ _____ into a cell where it may be expressed. Allows genes to be moved across species barriers.
natural
Recombinant DNA overcomes ________ barriers. Anatomical, Molecular, physical appearance, behavior, molecular.
Restriction enzymes
Discovered in bacteria
Destroy bacteriophage DNA and DNA picked up in transformation in bacterial cells. Cannot digest (host) DNA because of methylated cytosines.

Recognize short, specific nucleotide sequences.
Recognition sequences
"symmetrical" sequences 4-8 nucleotides running in opposite directions.
Palindromes
e.g.
GAATTC on one strand and CTTAAG on the other.
Restriction enzyme
___________ ________ cut btwn the same adjacent nucleotides on both strands.
restriction fragments
The cutting from R. enzyme results in "_____________________".
Restriction fragments
Double-stranded DNA with single stranded ends. "sticky ends"
sticky ends
These _________ ______ are used to join DNA from different sources.
hydrogen bonds
These DNA coming together from different sources are unions that are temporary which means they are held together by ___________ ______.
Outcome
A DNA molecule carrying a new combination of genes.
Gel Electrophoroesis
Separates molecules based on size and electrical charge.

Used to separate restriction fragments.

Isolate and purify individual fragments.

Band patterns used in DNA fingerprinting.
Vectors
Carry new DNA to desired cell.

Shuttle, plasmids, and viruses.
Shuttle vectors
_________ _______ can move cloned DNA among several different species.
vectors
Plasmids and viruses can also be used as ________. (recombinant DNA molecules are useful only if they can be made to replicate.
Gene libraries
are made of pieces of an entire genome stored in plasmids or phages.

cDNA is made from mRNA by reverse transcriptase.
reverse transcriptase
cDNA is made from mRNA by _________ _____________.
Transformation
Electroporation
Protolast fusion
Microinjection
Gene gun
How can DNA be inserted into the cell?? (5)
polymerase chain reaction
PCR
polymerase chain reaction
Amplifies DNA

Extremely small samples of DNA can be multiplied to high concentration.
Clone DNA for recombination
Amplify DNA to detectable levels
Sequence DNA
Diagnose genetic disease
Detect pathogens
What is polymerase chain reaction used for in terms of medical microbiology?
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphorism
RFLP analysis
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphorism
Each person has a unique array of __________ __________ _______ ____________, a "genetic fingerprint".
Forensic use of RFLP
approx. 1/million chance two people will have matching DNA fingerprints for the few regions tested.
Subunit/Piggback vaccines
Nonpathogenic viruses carrying genes for pathogens antigens as vaccines.
Genetic screening
Diagnosis of genetic disorders.
Gene therapy
A therapy that replaces defective or missing genes.
Antisense RNA
Complementary to normal RNA. Blocks mRNA from directing protein synthesis.
DNA probes
Used to detect and identify pathogens in food and patients.
Human Genome project
Nucleotides have been sequenced.
Human proteome project
_______ _______ _______ may provide diagnostics and treatments.
Agricultural Uses
Insect and disease resistance, Herbicide resistance, retard spoilage, nitrogen fixation.
Safety issues and ethics
Avoid accidental release

Genetically modified crops must be safe for consumption and for the environment. Who will have access to an individual's genetic information?
The operator
Where does the repressor protein bind?