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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What type of organism are fungi?
Eukaryotes
How do fungi grow?
By budding or producing filamentous hyphae
What are the 2 types of fungi?
Yeasts
Molds
What is Candida?
A yeast
Where is Candida normal flora?
In the skin, mouth, and GI tract
What is the most common fungus that causes human infections?
Candida albicans
What type of pathogen is Candida albicans?
Opportunistic
If a patient has candida esophagitis, what do you KNOW?
They are immunosuppressed... you need to find out what the reason is.
How do Candida species multiply?
By producing blastospores and blastoconidia
What type of pseudohyphae does candida albicans produce?
Nonbranching
What is the encapsulated yeast?
Cryptococcus neoformans
What is used to identify C. neoformans?
India ink stain
What type of morphology is characteristic of C. neoformans?
Narrow based budding
What disease does C. neoformans cause?
Meningoencephalitis - meningitis
How is C. neoformans transmitted?
Via bird droppings and soil
What is the portal of entry for C. neoformans?
The lungs
What are the 3 distinctive virulence factors of C. neoformans?
1. Capsular polysaccharide
2. Melanin
3. Enzymes
What does capsular polysaccharide do?
Resists phagocytosis
What does melanin do?
Resists oxidation in the CNS
What do enzymes do?
Allow for tissue invasion
Where is Aspergillus normally found?
In soil
What are 3 diseases caused by Aspergillus?
-Sinusitis
-Pneumonia
-Fungemia
What is colonizing aspergillosis?
A condition similar to TB in which balls of aspergillus form within cavities created by TB granulomas and necrosis.
What are the hyphae like in aspergillus?
Septated
What is Mucormycosis caused by?
Zygomycetes species
What patients are susceptible to mucormycosis?
-Neutropenic patients
-Diabetics in ketoacidosis
How does zygomycetes get into the body?
Via the nose
What is mucormycosis essentially?
Melting of the brain
What are the Phycomycetes?
Bread mold fungi
What are Zygomycetes hyphae like?
Unseptated
What is the cause of the worst form of malaria?
Plasmodium falciparum
Why is plasmodium falciparum so bad?
It is the MAJOR WORLDWIDE PARASITIC CAUSE OF DEATH
What bug transmits P. falciparum?
Anopheles mosquito
What confers resistance to P. falciparum?
-Duffy neg phenotypes
-Sickle cell trait
What disease results from P. vivax and P. malariae infections?
Mild anemia
What is the first cell infected by P. falciparum sporozoites?
Liver cells
What do the liver cells release?
Merozoites
What do the Merozoites do?
Infect RBC's
What happens once the RBCs have merozoites living within them?
They express a receptor for EC's and bind them and cause microthrombosis within vessels.
What is the choice method for diagnosing P. falciparum?
Microscopy of peripheral blood smear
What is the fever pattern like in malaria?
3-4 days depending on the cycle of cell infection/lyse/release
What is the diagnostic sign of P. falciparum?
Gametocytes in circulation and Signet rings within RBCs
What is Babesiosis?
A condition similar to malaria that has fever and hemolytic anemia
What organism causes Babesiosis? How is it transmitted?
Babesia microti - transmitted by the Ixodes deer tick
What is the diagnostic feature of B. microti?
Maltese cross inclusions in RBCs
Where is Babesiosis most prevalent?
In the northeast of US
What is the causative agent of Leishmaniasis? How is it transmitted?
Leishmania donovani; transmitted by the Sandfly
What is Leishmaniasis?
A chronic inflammatory disease of the skin
What is it called when Leishmaniasis becomes visceral?
Kala azar - it means black fever because the limbs are often hyperpigmented
Where are L. donovani parasites visible?
Within macrophages in lymph nodes
What is the agent that causes African sleeping sickness?
Trypanosoma gambiense, rhodesiense, or brucei
What is the vector for Trypanosoma transmission that causes sleeping sickness?
The tsetse fly
What distinguishes Trypanosoma rhodesiense/gambiense/brucei form Trypanosoma cruzi?
Cruzi = intracellular
Others = extracellular trypanosomes circulate in blood
What bug transmits Trypanosoma cruzi?
The kissing bug (reduviid)
What is Chagas disease the most frequent precursor to?
The most frequent cause of heart failure in Brazil and neighboring countries.