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17 Cards in this Set

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TSH (Thyroid-stimulating hormone)
Anterior Pituitary
Target: Thyroid Gland
Triggers release of thyroid hormones
Released in response to Thyrotropin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus

ANTERIOR LOBE
ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone)
Anterior Pituitary
Target: cells that produce hormones that affect glucose metabolism
Stimulates the release of steroid hormones by the adrenal cortex
Released in response to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus

ANTERIOR LOBE
Gonadotropin - FSH (Follicle-stimulating hormone)
Anterior Pituitary
Target: Gonads

Females: promotes ovarian follicle development and works with luteinizing hormone to stimulate secretion of estrogens by ovarian cells

Males: promotes the physical maturation of developing sperm

FSH production is inhibited by inhibin - a peptide hormone released by cells in the testes and ovaries

ANTERIOR LOBE
Gonadotropin - LH (Luteinizing hormone)
Anterior Pituitary
Target: Gonads

Females: induces ovulation, promotes secretion by the ovaries of estrogens and progestins which prepare the body for a possible pregnancy

Males: stimulates the production of sex hormones (androgens - testosterone) by the interstitial cells of the testes

ANTERIOR LOBE
GH (Growth hormone)
Anterior Pituitary
Target: musculo-skeletal system

Stimulates cell growth and reproduction by accelerating the rate of protein synthesis

Regulated by: Growth hormone- releasing hormone (GH-RH) and Growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GH-IH)

ANTERIOR LOBE
PRL (Prolactin)
Anterior Pituitary
Females: works with other hormones to stimulate mammary gland development, in pregnancy also stimulates milk production by the mammary glands

PRL is inhibited by prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH)

ANTERIOR LOBE
MSH (Melanocyte-stimulating hormone)
Anterior Pituitary
stimulates the melanocytes of the skin to increase their production of melanin - in adults this portion of the anterior lobe is virtually nonfunctional

ANTERIOR LOBE
ADH (Antidiuretic hormone)
Posterior Pituitary
released in response to a variety of stimuli

primary function is to decrease the amount of water lost at the kidneys thereby reducing the concentrations of electrolytes in the extracellular fluid

POSTERIOR LOBE
OXT (Oxytocin)
Posterior Pituitary
Females: stimulates smooth muscle contraction of the wall of the uterus promoting labor and delivery

Both: circulating concentrations of OXT rise during sexual arousal and peak at orgasm

release is triggered by sensory input, therefore, is an example of neuroendocrine reflex

POSTERIOR LOBE
Calcitonin
Thyroid Gland
Decreased Ca++ concentrations in body fluids
Inhibits osteoclasts and stimulates Ca++ excretion
Important in bone growth
Aldosterone
Adrenal Cortex
Causes retention of Na+ and elimination of K+
Secondary effect is reabsorption of water
increased desire for salty foods
Glucocorticoids
Adrenal Cortex
Released stimulated by ACTH - cortisol
accelerate rate of glucose synthesis
suppression of immune functions
Androgens
Adrenal Cortex
Primary site for androgen release in females
Promotes muscle mass, blood cell formation, supports libido
Stimulates development of pubic hair before puberty
Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
Adrenal Medulla
Targets skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, the liver, and the heart
Acceleration of glucose breakdown
increased muscular strength and endurance
breaks down stored fats
increases rate and force of cardiac muscle contraction
Melatonin
Pineal Gland
Plays a role in timing of puberty
May protect CNS from free radicals
regulates circadian rhythms
Leptin
Adipose tissue as an endocrine tissue
binds to neurons in hypothalamus
released during and after a meal
satiation
suppresses appetite
Resistin
Adipose tissue as an endocrine tissue
reduces insulin sensitivity
may be link between type II diabetes and obestiy