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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 3 components of the Respiratory Control System?
1. Controller elements
2. Effectors
3. Sensors
What are the controller elements, where are they?
Brainstem - pons and medulla
Spinal cord
What are the effectors and what controls them?
The muscles and lungs - controlled by the brain.
What is achieved by the respiratory muscles?
Transport of air from the atmosphere to alveoli.
How does the controller in the brain keep tabs on what is going on in the effectors?
-Via proprioceptors and lung and upper airway receptors which sense the mechanical status.
-Via CO2 and O2 sensors
What are the CO2/O2 receptors called?
Where are the primary O2 receptors?
In the carotid body at the bifurcation of the carotid artery.
Where are the primary CO2 and H+ receptors?
In the medulla
What happens to breathing if you lesion the rostral pons?
Breathing does not change
What happens to breathing if you lesion the pontine-cerebellar junction near the cerebellar peduncle??
Breathing slows and Tidal Volume increases
What center is located near the pons-cerebellar junction?
NPBL - nucleus parabrachialis; the pneumotaxic center
What happens to breathing if you lesion the Pontine-medullary junction?
Irregular breathing and Gasping
What happens if you lesion the junction between the medulla and spinal cord?
Breathing stops
So will breathing stop in the absence of the pons?
Will breathing stop in the absence of the medulla?
What happens if you simply cut the vagus nerve?
Breathing slows and TV increases
What is important in the Vagus?
Something that shuts off inspiration
What is a respiratory neuron?
Any neuron that is active in some phase of the respiratory cycle
What are the 3 types of respiratory neurons?
1. Inspiratory firing
2. Late inspiratory firing
3. Expiratory firing
Where are the respiratory neurons found?
-Mostly in the medulla
-Some in the pons
What does the VRG (ventral respiratory group) contain?
-Nucleus ambiguus
What is in the VRG functionally?
-Motor neurons for the larynx and pharynx
-Premotor neurons for the pump muscles
What is just rostral to the rostral VRG?
-Retrotrapezoid nuclei.
What is the prebotzinger important for?
Respiratory Rythm Generation
What is contained in the Pontine respiratory group?
-Kolliker-Fuse nucleus
-Parabrachial nuclei
What is in the midline of the medulla? What is its function?
Nucleus Solitarius tractus - the main site of afferent input from the carotid chemoreceptors and vagus nerve.
What is the relationship between the RHYTHM generator and PATTERN generator?
The rythm generator activates the pattern generator neurons
What is the function of the rythm generator?
To trigger and initiate the respiratory cycle.
What is the function of the pattern generator?
To activate motoneurons for proper sequential activation of respiratory pump and airway contractions.
Where is the site of the Rhythm Generator?
Prebotzinger Complex
What type of muscle rhythm is generated by the Prebotz C?
Where is the expiratory rhythm generator?
In the RTN - retrotrapezoid nucleus located above the botzinger complex.
Are all medullary neurons specialized for breathing?
No; some have multiple physiologic behaviors like regulating vomiting.
How/where are breathing and other behaviors coordinated?
Its very controversial, but postulated that something TRIGGERS each behavior, which activates a MASTER PATTERN GENERATOR.
It provides the proper sequential activation of muscles needed to perform the behavior with highest priority.
What are the 2 models for respiratory rhythmogenesis?
-Pacemaker model
-Network model