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97 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
How much of hyaline cartilage is mineral content?
None
How much of bone is mineral?
70%
How much of hyaline cartilage is water?
75%
How much of bone is water?
25%
What type of collagen is in hyaline cartilage?
Type II
What type of cartilage is in bone?
Type I
How much of Cartilage is GAGs?
20%
How much of bone is GAGs?
10%
How much of hyaline is proteoglycan?
10%
How much of bone is proteoglycan?
very low amts
Which structure has neurovascular structures, hyaline cartilage or bone?
Bone
Feature of Cartilage that allows it to be supportive:
RESILIENCE - when compressed it regains its shape and size.
Where is ELASTIC cartilage found? (4 places)
-Auricle
-Ext. auditory meatus
-Auditory tube
-Larynx
Where is HYALINE cartilage found?
-Nasal
-Larynx
-Ribs
-Trachea/bronchi
-Endplates of bone
Where is FIBROCARTILAGE found?
-Intervertebral disks
-Pubus symphysis
-Articular disks
-Tendon insertions
What type of cartilage is in synovial joints?
Hyaline
What does Cartilage tissue consist of?
-Chondrocytes embedded in
-Cartilage matrix
3 Components of Cartilage Matrix:
-Ground substance
-Fibers
-Noncollagenous proteins
What is the predominant component of cartilage matrix?
Ground substance
What is the Ground Substance of cartilage made of? (3 things)
-Water
-Ions
-Proteoglycans
The proteoglycan in cartilage ground substance is:
Aggrecan
What is the important feature of aggrecan that makes it functionally important in cartilage?
High negative charge due to Carboxyl and Sulfate groups - bind to sodium and water.
What does aggrecan do for cartilage matrix?
Expands it into a gel
Where the ground substance Aggrecan gives cartilage matrix its resilience, what do the fibers give it?
Mechanical stability
What is the primary fiber found in the cartilage matrix?
Collagen
What is the predominant type of collagen found in cartilage? What is its function?
Type II - gives mechanical stability to cartilage matrix.
What is the function of type 9 collagen?
Stabilizies type II collagen networks by facilitating interaction with proteoglycans.
What is the function of type 10 collagen?
-Organizes collagen fibrils into a 3D lattice
-Found in hypertrophic areas
What is the function of type 11 collagen?
Regulates type II collagen fibril size.
What 3 Noncollagenous proteins are found in collagen?
-Tenascin
-Chondronectin
-Anchorin CII
What are the cells found embedded in cartilage?
Chondrocytes
Where are chondrocytes found in cartilage?
In cell nests within spaces called lacunae.
How do chondrocytes change as they age?
-Grow larger
-Less basophilic
-Less apt to mitosis
What is the function of chondrocytes?
To produce and secrete Cartilage Matrix components, and to maintain the integrity of it.
What do Chondrocytes also produce other than cartilage matrix?
Enzymes that can degrade cartilage.
What is the difference between a Chondroma and Chondrosarcoma?
Chondroma is benign, chondrosarcoma is malignant.
What is the clinical use of noncollagenous proteins (Chondronectin, tenascin, Anchorin CII) in cartilage?
Use as markers of cartilage turnover and degeneration.
What 3 hormones increase cartilage matrix synthesis by chondrocytes?
-Growth hormone
-Thyroxin
-Testosterone
What 3 hormones decrease it?
-Cortisone
-Hydrocortisone
-Estradiol
What vitamins affect cartilage synthesis?
Vit A, Vit C, and Vit D
What does Vit A do to cartilage?
Acts on epiphyseal cartilage
What is the result of Vit A
-Excess
-Insufficiency
Excess - reduces width
Insufficiency - accelerates ossification
What role does Vit C have in cartilage synthesis?
Stimulates MATRIX synthesis - especially COLLAGEN
What does Vit C insufficiency result in?
The chondrocytes can't make matrix - epiphyseal plates deformed and scurvy.
What is Vitamin D important for?
Calcium and Phosphate absorption
What will Vit D insufficiency cause?
Improper calcification of matrix and RICKETS.
What structure encloses cartilage?
Perichondrium
What is the outer part of the perichondrium made of?
Fibrous connective tissue - primarily type I collagen.
What secretes the outer perichondrium?
Fibroblasts
What 3 important structures are in the outer perichondrium?
-Nerves
-Capillary plexus
-Lymphatics
What does the INNER part of the perichondrium consist of?
Flattened chondrogenic cells
What do these chondrogenic cells have the potential to become?
Chondroblasts
What differentiates chondroBLASTS from chondroCYTES?
When it becomes surrounded by cartilage matrix.
What are chondroclasts?
(what are they from? what do they do?)
Multinucleated cells derived from MONOCYTES - degrade calcified cartilage.
Is cartilage vascular?
no
is perichondrium vascular?
yes
How do Chondrocytes recieve nourishment?
By DIFFUSION from the vascularized perichondrium.
What is the metabolic rate of chondrocytes like?
High
What are the 3 types of cartilage?
-Hyaline
-Elastic
-Fibrocartilage
Which type is most common?
Hyaline
What is the appearance of fresh hyaline cartilage?
Bluish-white and Glassy
What is TERRITORIAL MATRIX?
Newly produced cartilage immediately surrounding chondrocytes
Why is Territorial matrix basophilic?
Because it has a higher content of proteoglycan which is more electronegative so attracts the basophilic dye more.
What is the rest of the older cartilage matrix called?
Interterritorial matrix
What are the 2 specialized types of HYALINE cartilage associated with bone?
-Articular
-Epiphyseal
How are chondrocytes within articular cartilage arranged?
In rows
How are collagen fibers within articular cartilage arranged?
(superficial versus deep)
Superficial: parallel to surface
Deep: perpendicular to surface
Why is articular cartilage so smooth at the surface?
Because it has no perichondrium.
What is unique about the 4 subzones in articular cartilage?
The top 3 are unmineralized
-Bottom zome is mineralized - adjacent to bone.
What is the boundary between the mineralized zone 4 and zone 3 called?
The TIDEMARK
Why is articular hyaline cartilage arranged in rows?
To distribute compressive forces.
Where else is hyaline cartilage associated with bones?
At epiphysial plates
What color is fresh elastic cartilage? Why?
Yellow - because it contains ELASTIN
What is the distribution of chondrocytes in elastic cartilage like?
Random
Does elastic cartilage have a perichondrium?
Yes
What color is fresh fibrocartilage? Why?
White and opaque - because it has predominantly TYPE I COLLAGEN
How are chondrocytes arranged in fibrocartilage?
In lines parallel to collagen fibers.
Does fibrocartilage have a perichondrium?
no
What are the 2 mechanisms by which cartilage grows?
-Appositional growth
-Interstitial growth
What is INTERSTITIAL growth?
Growth from within
How does interstitial growth occur?
By the separation of chondrocytes as they divide and produce new matrix.
What type of growth is the result of interstitial growth of epiphysial cartilage?
Growth of long bones
What is Appositional growth?
Growth from the surface
When does Appositional growth of cartilage occur? When does interstitial growth occur?
Appositional - all throughout the lifespan of cartilage
Interstitial - generally only in young cartilage
What does appositional growth develop from?
The chondrogenic cells at the inner layer of perichondrium.
How does appositional growth occur?
By secretion of cartilage matrix from the chondroblasts, which then become enclosed within it.
What are most problems with cartilage related to? What type of cartilage?
Aging - in articular cartilages
What is "Fibrillation"?
Changes in the collagen fibers at the surface of articular cartilage - results in rough articular surfaces.
What is Chondromalacia?
Softening of cartilage due to decreased proteoglycan content.
What can happen to the chondrocytes in cartilage as people age?
Necrosis - leaving ghost like outlines in the matrix.
What common disease is related to cartilage degradation with aging?
Arthritis
2 types of arthritis:
-Osteoarthritis
-Rheumatoid arthritis
What are multiple tidemarks a sign of?
Cartilage matrix mineralization
What is needed for repair of cartilage to occur?
Influx of chondrogenic cells and growth factors; so need to penetrate the tidemark.
Even if the tidemark is penetrated what is cartilage repair like?
Often incomplete and not normal.
What can be done to decrease the pain of individuals in arthritis?
Inject hyaluronate
What aging changes occur in intervertebral discs?
Decreased water in nucleus pulposis + increased proteoglycans. Increased collagen/proteins makes the nucleus FIRM.