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13 Cards in this Set

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What receptors do alcohol bind to?
Decrease in GLU, increase in GABA.

Otherwise binds serotonin, GABA, NMDA
Where is the universal center for addiction?
DA release in Nucleus Accumebns

There are no dopamine cell bodies in nuc. accumbens, the area receives dopamine from VTA upon burst fire via pleasurable activities.
What receptor type is in nuc. accumbens
GABA -

enkaphalin (activating) - mu receptors

dynorphin (inhibiting) - kappa receptors
True/False:

Neuroadaptations are the OPPOSITE of drug's effec?
TRUE
What is the arcuate nucleus? It is involved in what drug use primarily?
Involved in B-endorphin system. Alcohol activates B-endorphin stimulation, particularly in people with low baseline B-endorphin levels. These people have greater rises in B-endorphin per drink
What area is involved in denial?
PFC dysfunction. Grey matter loss. PFC is GLU! always GO!
What are the mechanisms of action of ecstacy and cocaine?
Block reuptake of 5HT, DA, norepi.

Ecstacy is primarily 5HT.
What areas are activated by cue-induced cravings?
Limbic! anterior cingulate/amygdala
What is sensitization? What drug is this relevant to?
Kindling sensitization to a threshold. At first, the dose may not be felt, then BAM, same dose is awesome.
What determines benzo's addictive potential?
HIGH LIPOPHILIC enters and is stored longer is fat-heavy areas like the brain.

Remember, lipophilic directly related to potency and duration.
% of first-time users that get hooked to cocaine? nicotine?
17% and 32%. Availability can alter these numbers
What is progression
Means that if you get to a level of drug use, even if you stop, you relapse at same rates as where you stopped
What are risks of benzo and barb withdrawal?
Seizures (hypoactivity of GABA). Also get agitated. paranoid.