Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The feeling that a specific nation, language, or culture is superior
Policy of aggressive military preparedness
Niagara Movement
Situation in which the strength of rival alliances is nearly equal
balance of power
Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy
Triple Alliance
Britain, France, and Russia
Triple Entente
To prepare the military for war
Britain, France, Russia, and Italy
Allied Powers
Location of French counterattack that kept German forces from
The strategy of defending a position by fighting from the protection of deep ditches is known as
a. trench warfare
b. Marne tactics

The French and German armies turned to trench warfare -- the strategy of defending a position by fighting from the protection of deep ditches
The area between opposing trenches was called _______________.
a. open territory
b. no-man's land

The area between opposing trenches, called no-man's land, varied in width from about 200 to 1,000 yards.
In the trenches, soldiers set up groups of _______________.
a. machine guns
b. tanks

In the trenches, soldiers set up groups of machine guns that fired 400 to 600 rounds of ammunition per minute.
Poison gas killed soldiers _______________ by destroying their lungs.
a. slowly
b. quickly

Some shells contained poison gases, such as chlorine gas and mustard gas. These gases destroyed soldiers' lungs, killing the men slowly.
By 1914 the war had become a situation in which _______________ could win a decisive victory.
a. neither side
b. either side

By late 1914 the war had become a stalemate -- a situation in which neither side can win a decisive victory.
Britain used a _______________ to block German ports.
a. naval blockade
b. U-boat fleet
Britain used its large navy to cut off German supplies by blockading ports and placing mines in the North Sea.
Germany used a _______________ to keep supplies from reaching the Allies.
a. naval blockade
b. U-boat fleet

German U-boats, or submarines, attacked British shipping to prevent supplies from reaching Britain and the Allies.
U.S. neutrality _______________ American merchants from trading with warring nations.
a. prevented
b. did not prevent

U.S. neutrality did not prevent American merchants from trading with the warring European nations.
The American public was _______________ when a German U-boat sank the Lusitania off the coast of Ireland.
a. furious
b. pleased

May 1915 a U-boat sank the British passenger liner Lusitania, killing nearly 1,200 people, including 128 Americans. The Lusitania attack infuriated the American public.
In the _______________, Germany promised not to sink merchant vessels "without warning and without trying to save lives."
a. Sussex pledge
b. Lusitania pledge

Germany issued the Sussex pledge, which included a promise not to sink merchant vessels "without warning and without saving human lives."
The Zimmerman Note proposed an alliance between Germany and _______________.
a. the United States
b. Mexico

The Zimmerman Note, which proposed an alliance between Germany and Mexico, outraged the American public.
Congress declared war on Germany on _______________.
a. April 6, 1917
b. June 28, 1914

On April 6, 1917, Congress declared war on Germany.
On May 18, 1917, Congress passed the Selective Service Act, which required men between the ages of 21 and 30 to register to be drafted into the armed forces.
Selective Service Act
segregated combat units
The majority of the 400,000 African Americans who served in the armed forces did so in segregated units commanded by white officers.
Liberty bonds
Money from the sale of Liberty bonds provided loans to the Allies to allow them to purchase food and war supplies.
War Industries Board
To oversee the production and distribution of goods manufactured by the nation's war industries, President Wilson created the War Industries Board.
volunteered as nurses, signalers, typists, and interpreters
The "Hello Girls" of the U.S. Army Signal Corps handled military telephone service, including translating calls and sending battle orders.
Although officially not allowed in combat, many female nurses and ambulance drivers worked at the front lines.
Many women volunteered for the Red Cross and served at home and abroad.
General _______________ wanted the American Expeditionary Force to serve as a distinct group rather than join French and British units.
a. Leonard Wood
b. John J. Pershing

General John J. Pershing refused to send soldiers to join French and British units. He wanted the American Expeditionary Force to serve as individual units.
In 1917, _______________ seized control of the Russian government.
a. Socialists
b. Bolsheviks

In November 1917, the Bolsheviks seized control of the Russian government.
The Central Powers and Russia signed the _______________, a peace agreement taking Russia out of the war.
a. Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty
b. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

In March 1918 the Central Powers and Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, a peace agreement removing Russia from the war.
On March 21, 1918, the German army fired more than 6,000 heavy guns from along the _______________ River
a. Somme
b. Aisne

On March 21, 1918, the Germans attacked along the Somme River in northern France. The battle began with a five-hour bombardment by more than 6,000 heavy guns.
The second offensive by the German army in April 1918 took place near _______________ and resulted in some 110,000 casualties in 20 days.
a. an airfield
b. a major railway junction

In April 1918 the German army launched its second offensive against the British in northwestern France. The Germans failed to reach their target -- a major railway junction.
During the _______________, the U.S. Army blew up all the bridges that the Germans had built.
a. First Battle of the Marne
b. Second Battle of the Marne

During the Second Battle of the Marne, the U.S. 3rd Division blew up every bridge that the Germans had built across the Marne River.
The 369th U.S. Infantry spent more time in combat than any other U.S. unit and received the _______________ for their bravery.
a. Croix de Guerre
b. Presidential Unit Citation

The 369th U.S. Infantry spent more time in combat than any other U.S. unit and was the first Allied regiment to reach the Rhine River on the German border.
Starvation was so high that _______________ took place in Germany and other Central Power nations.
a. riots and strikes
b. sit-ins

Food riots and strikes occurred in Germany and the other Central Powers nations.
Woodrow Wilson issues the Fourteen Points.
On January 8, 1918, Wilson outlined a vision of postwar Europe and a system to avoid future wars. This plan was called the Fourteen Points, because it contained 14 basic principles.
Leaders of 55 nations attend the peace conference at Versailles.
Leaders of the Allied nations attended the peace conference at the palace of Versailles, outside of Paris.
The Treaty of Versailles becomes the final peace settlement of World War I.
The final peace settlement of World War I, the Treaty of Versailles, included a number of Wilson's Fourteen Points.
Wilson begins a speaking tour to convince the American public that the Senate should pass the treaty.
Wilson took his cause to the American public. He went on an extended speaking tour to defend the Treaty of Versailles.
Woodrow Wilson collapses and later suffers a stroke.
In September 1919, Wilson collapses after a speech in Pueblo, Colorado.
Event 6:
Senator Lodge presents his list of reservations to the treaty.
In November 1919, Senator Lodge presented the treaty for ratification with his list of reservations.
Event 7:
Both versions of the treaty are defeated in the U.S. Senate.
In November 1919, the Senate defeated both versions -- with and without reservations -- of the Treaty of Versailles.
Event 8 & 9:
The U.S. Senate defeats the Treaty of Versailles for a final time-US negotiates separate peace treaties w/Austria, Germany, Hungary
After further debate, the Senate again defeated the Treaty of Versailles in March 1920.
Which country made the first declaration of war?
In what city was Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated?
At the beginning of World War I, Bosnia-Herzegovina was part of
To which other prominent leader was Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany related?
Nicholas II of Russia
Germany’s attack upon which country directly provoked Britain to go to war?
Which Russian general lost the Battle of the Masurian Lakes?
The commander of the German East Asia Squadron was
Maximilian von Spee
How is the western front in World War I best characterized?
A stagnant war fought from trenches, with neither side gaining or losing much ground in spite of huge casualties
Italy’s action in the war was primarily against
Which country joined the war on the side of the Allied Powers in 1916?
What was the name of the first U.S. civilian ship to be sunk by a German submarine?
After declaring war, the United States was
At war only with Germany, not with Austria-Hungary
Who assumed power in Germany and led negotiations with the Allies after Wilhelm II lost power
Max von Baden
What three "ism's" are credited as casues of WWI?
Nationalism-the belief that one's nation, culture or language is superior to others

Militarism-belief that military has a influence on society

Imperialism-the practice of building an empire by founding colonies or conquering other nations.
Who were the major players at the Versailles conference?
Wilson, Clemenceau, Orlando, George
What was Wilson's Fourteenth Point?
The establishment of the League of Nations.