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30 Cards in this Set

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CALL TO FREEDOM

CHAP 19 REVIEW
CALL TO FREEDOM

CHAP 19 REVIEW
Invented a quicker and less expensive way to make steel
In the 1850s British inventor Henry Bessemer discovered an easier and less expensive way to make steel, which became known as the Bessemer process.
Designed railroad passenger and sleeping cars that made long-distance travel more comfortable
Elegant passenger and sleeping cars designed by George Pullman made long-distance travel more comfortable
Railroad owner who consolidated smaller railroad companies and improved railroad services in cities
Cornelius Vanderbilt began consolidating, or buying smaller companies to form one large company. The result was improved efficiency and decreased travel time.
Cooking, heating, and lighting fuel made by refining crude oil
In the 1850s Dr. Benjamin Silliman Jr. discovered how to refine crude oil into a fuel called kerosene, which could be used for cooking, heating, and home lighting.
Exclusive right to manufacture or sell an invention
A patent is an exclusive right to manufacture or sell an invention
Inventor whose research team created a workable electric lightbulb
In 1879 Thomas Alva Edison and his team of inventors succeeded in creating the lightbulb
Inventor who patented the telephone
In March 1876 inventor Alexander Graham Bell patented the telephone, or "talking telegraph"
Invented an engine powered by gasoline
In 1876 German engineer Nikolaus A. Otto invented an engine powered by gasoline, another fuel produced from oil.
Designed and built a gasoline-powered airplane
Orville and Wilbur Wright were bicyle makers who began experimenting with airplane designs in the 1890s.
Period in the late 1800s when U.S. manufacturing experienced rapid growth and made the nation the world's industrial leader
The Second Industrial Revolution was a period of explosive growth in U.S. manufacturing in the late 1800s. By the mid-1890s, the U.S. had become the world's industrial leader.
From 1860 to 1900, the U.S. population more than _______________, and the number of farms increased to feed the growing population.
a. doubled
b. tripled
From 1860 to 1900, the U.S. population more than doubled, from 31.5 million to 76 million.
The combination of more farms and greater productivity in the late 1800s led to overproduction and _______________ prices for crops.
The combination of more farms and greater productivity led to overproduction and lower prices for crops.
The National Grange was founded by _______________ and several government clerks as a social and educational organization for farmers.
Oliver Kelley founded the National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry in 1867. The National Grange was a social and educational organization for farmers.
The Coinage Act of 1873 placed the United States on a _______________.
a. silver standard
b. gold standard
The Coinage Act of 1873 placed the United States strictly on a gold standard--meaning that only gold could back U.S. currency.
The People's Party, which was formed by Alliance leaders and representatives from labor and reform organizations, was better known as the _______________.
a. Populist Party
b. Greenback Party
Alliance leaders met with representatives from labor and reform organizations. They formed a new national political party, the People's Party, better known as the Populist Party.
Voters in the 1892 presidential election chose _______________ as their new president.
a. Benjamin Harrison
b. Grover Cleveland
Grover Cleveland, a Democrat, won the presidential election of 1892. His opponents were Benjamin Harrison from the Republican Party and James B. Weaver from the Populist Party.
Many investors reacted to the economic downturn of the 1890s by selling their investments in exchange for _______________.
a. diamonds
b. gold
Many investors reacted to the downturn in the economy by selling their investments in exchange for gold, causing a gold drain.
The victory of _______________ in the 1896 presidential election marked the end of both the Populist Party and organized farmers' parties.
William McKinley's victory in the election of 1896 marked the end of both the Populist Party and the organized farmers' parties.
Replaced many skilled workers:
machines
Person who performed time-and-motion studies in order to standardize worker activity:
Frederick W. Taylor
Formed to improve working conditions:
labor unions
When union leaders negotiate on behalf of all workers in a particular factory or industry:
collective bargaining
Leader of the Knights of Labor who turned it into the first truly national labor union in the United States:
Terence V. Powderly
Well-known female union organizer:
Haymarket Riot
Labor union that organized individual national unions into a loose association:
American Federation of Labor
The late 1800s saw the rise of wealthy and powerful companies and the increased importance of entrepreneurs. Social Darwinism gained support, but the antitrust movement also gained ground.
Entrepreneurs created large, wealthy companies.
In the late 1800s, many entrepreneurs organized their businesses as corporations--companies that sell shares of ownership called stocks.
Andrew Carnegie's business succeeded in part through his use of vertical integration--owning businesses involved in each step of a manufacturing process.
John D. Rockefeller used vertical integration, horizontal integration, and trusts to make Standard Oil Company the nation's largest oil refiner.
Many individuals who supported laissez-faire capitalism also believed in social Darwinism
Some business leaders used social Darwinism to justify their accumulation of great wealth while their companies supported child labor, low wages, and unsafe working conditions
Criticisms grew stronger in the 1880s as corporations grew more powerful. Critics argued that many entrepreneurs earned their fortunes by using unfair business practices.