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20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the percentage of pregnant women who drink or smoke?
>50%. Biggest illicit drug = marijuana. If they drink or smoke, likelihood of marijuana and/or cocaine use increases ALOT!! (20% vs. .2%)
TRUE/FALSE: Women tend to relapse post-partum after abstaining during pregnancy?
Etiology of highest-risk women
Uneducated, young, single, partners who use drugs, violence
What acute effects can cocaine use have on pregnancy?
BINGE TYPE IS WORSE!!! Binging can have bleeding, ruptiored placenta, premature delivery, and still birth.

Daily use (but smaller amounts) tend to have smaller babies, but lower rates of the other problems.
What acute effects can nicotine have on pregnancy?
Spontaneous abortion. Premature delivery.
What is one large MOTOR IMPAIRMENT unique to opioids?
impaired suckling. have difficulty feeding.
What drugs can cause withdrawal, growth retardation, and jittery symptoms?
ALL! (THC not proven to affect growth)

60-90% of kids will go into withdrawal within 72 hours of delivery
What are some of the most important withdrawal symptoms?
What kinds of drugs cause these symptoms?
Polysubstance use has the worst withdrawal symptoms.

Riskiest symptoms are hyperpyrexia, hyperthermia, excessive suckling (impaised suckling if opioid), and diarrhea --> dehydration
What effect do sedatives (alcohol, barbs, benzo's) have on neuronal development?
Sedatives (drugs that activate GABA-A and inhibit NMDA glut) trigger widespread neuronal apoptosis.
What effect does cocaine have on neonatal development?
Dysfunction of D1 receptor signaling. Abnormalities of frontocingulate cortex...difficulty with attention focus (frontal) and stimulus processing (cingulate)...5-HT suppression in frontal cortex leads to poor response inhibition
What neonatal effects does nicotine have?
Abnormal neuronal cell proliferation and differentiation.

Disrupts the development of cholinergic and catecholamine systems.
What effects does alcohol have on neonatal development?
FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME (only effects id'd by HUMAN studies.)

Direct toxicity of alcohol and acetylaldehyde on embryo and placenta!

Growth retardation. CNS dysfunction. Flat midface, microcephaly, short nose, short palpebral fissure, thin upper lip.

Higher rates of ADHD and conduct disorder.
What is the only drug class that can't be treated without using meds
How do you treat withdrawal in babies?
Sooth them. Dim lights, gentle moving, reduce startle, prevent hyperthermia.

What effect does alcohol have on the hippocampus?
NMDA transmission in the hippocampus is INHIBITED MORE POWERFULLY by acute alcohol than in adolescents than in childhood. Smaller hippocampus in kids who abuse alcohol
What is double effect of alcohol and teens?
Less sensitive to alcohol (more consumption). Normal PFC development (conflict registration) NOT present. Kids end up drinknig a lot more.
Effect on marijuana in adolescents who start before 17
Less grey matter, brain volume shrinkage. Height and weight less than average.
Effects of cocaine in adolescents
Higher aggression. Less serotonin input to prefrontal cortex to avoid aggression.
Children with parents with substance abuse have higher or less likelihood of using?
What are two externalizing psychiatric factors that can play a role in high risk kids.
Conduct disorder (5-6x). Neurobehavioral disinhibition. Hyperactivity/impulse/sensation seeking, response to reward. Poor response to punishment.

Depression and anxiety too