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46 Cards in this Set

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True or False?
Diffusion Limits Cell Size
True
A cell cannot survive unless there is enough _____ to support its protein needs.
DNA
What are the three factors that contribute to cell size limitations?
Diffusion
DNA
Surface Area to Volume Ratio
As a cell's size increases, it's _______ increases much faster than its surface area.
Volume
True or False?
All cells come from preexisting cells.
True
The cells created during cell division are ______to the parent cell.
Identical
Just before cell division, short stringy structures appear...what are they?
Chromosomes
What is the function of chromosomes?
They carry the genetic material that is copied and passed from generation to generation.
For most of a cell's life, how do chormosomes exist?
As chromatin
Describe chromatin
Long strands of DNA wrapped around proteins
What is it?
Sequence of growth and division of a cell
Cell Cycle
What's another name for a cell's growth period?
Interphase
What happens after Interphase?
Mitosis Begins
The first step is Prophase
What is the name given to the process by which two daughter cells are formed?
Mitosis
What are the three stages of Interphase?
G1 S Stage and G2
What occurs during Interphase G1?
Protein synthesis rapidly occurs
What occurs during Interphase S Stage?
Chromosomes are replicated in the nucleus and they divide to form identical sister chromatids connected by a centromere.
What happens during Interphase G2 ?
The chromosomes shorten and coil and additional protein synthesis occurs
Which stage of Interphase is the longest?
G1
List the things that happen during Interphase.
Cell Grows
Cell Copies Chromosomes
DNA Sythesis
Mitochondria and Other Organelles are Created
During what phase of mitosis are spindle fibers, sister chromatids, and the centromere visible?
Prophase
During what phase of mitosis do the chromosomes move to the equator or center of the spindle?
Metaphase
What is the name given to the small dark cylinderical structures that are made of microtubules just outside the nucleus?
Centrioles
What is the name given to the football shaped cage like structure consisting of thin fivers made of microtublues
Spindle
How are the doubled chromosomes attached to the spindle fibers?
By there centromeres
What marks the beginning of the anaphase?
The separation of sister chromatids
What's another name for the division of the cytoplasm?
Cytokinesis
What phase of mitosis has the chromatids reaching opposite poles of the cell?
Telephase
True or False?
Mitosis cannot gurantee genetic continuity
False
Mitosis does guarantee genetic continuity
Multiple organs working together is called an _____ ______
Organ System
What controls the cell cycle?
Enzymes
What is one result of uncontrolled cell division?
Cancer
Where are genes located?
On chromosomes
A gene is a segment of _____.
DNA
Cancer is thought to be a mistake in one or more of the genes that produce _____.
Enzymes
How prevelant is cancer?
It's the second leading cause of death in the US exceeded only by heart disease
What's the name given to masses of cells formed by cancerous cells?
Tumors
How does cancer spread throughout the body?
Through the circulatory system, usually in the later stages of cancer
Diets low in _____ and high in _____ can reduce the risk of cancer.
Low in Fat
High in Fiber
What are the two layers of skin?
Epidermis and Dermis
What causes basal cell carcinoma?
Sun Damage
What's the most lethal form of skin cancer?
Malignent Melanomas
What's a common sign of a malignent melanoma?
Strange discoloration and abnormal size.
The life cycle of a cell is divded into how many general periods? What are they called?
Two Periods
Interphase & Mitosis
List the threethings the cells of most muticellular organisms are organized into.
Tissues
Organs
Organ Systems
List two things you can do to prevent cancer.
Eat a Healthy Diet and Exercise Regulary