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57 Cards in this Set

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Carcinomas:
derive from squamous, glandular (adenocarcinoma), transitional epithelium
Sarcoma:
derives from connective tissue
Retinoblastoma:
malignancy of eye, point mutation inactivates RB suppressor gene on chromosome 13; predisposition for osteogenic sarcoma in adolescence
Familial adenomatous polyposis:
inactivation of APC suppressor gene
Li-Fraumeni Syndrome:
increased risk for sarcomas, leukemia, carcinomas before age 50; inactivation of TP53 suppressor gene
Hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (lynch syndrome):
increased risk for colorectal cancers without previous polyps; inactivation of DNA mismatch repair genes
BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes:
inactivation of genes increases risk for developing breast and ovarian cancer
Xeroderma pigmentosum:
increased risk for skin cancers due to ultraviolet light
Chromosome instability syndromes:
chromosomes susceptible to damage by ionizing radiation and drugs; predisposition to cancers; disorders include Fanconi anemia, ataxia telangiectasia, Bloom syndrome
ABL:
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (chromosome 22)
HER (ERBB2):
Breast carcinoma
MYC:
Burkitt's lymphoma (assoc w/ CBV)
N-MYC:
Neuroblastoma
RAS:
Leukemia; lung, colon, pancreatic carcinomas
RET:
Multiple endocrine neoplasia IIa/IIb syndromes
SIS:
Osteogenic sarcoma, astrocytoma
APC:
Familial polyposis
BRCA1/BRCA2:
Breast, avary, prostate carcinomas
RB:
retinoblastoma, osteogenic sarcoma, breast carcinoma
TGF-B:
Pancreatic and colorectal carcinomas
TP53:
Lung, colon, breast carcinomas. Li-Fraumeni syndrome: breast carcinoma, brain tumors, leukemia, sarcomas
VHL:
Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome: cerebellar hemangioblastoma, retinal angioma, renal cell cercinoma (bilateral), pheochromocytoma (bilateral)
WT 1:
Wilms' tumor
Aflatoxin (from aspergillus):
Hepatocellular carcinoma in association with hepatitis B virus
Alcohol:
Squamous cell carcinoma of oropharynx and upper/middle esophagus; pancreatic and hepatocellular carcinomas
Alkylating agents:
Malignant lymphoma
Arsenic:
Squamous cell carcinoma of skin, lung cancer, liver angiosarcoma
Asbestos:
Bronchogenic carcinoma, pleural mesothelioma
Benzene:
Acute leukemia
Cyclophosphamide:
Transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder. Mesna pier
Diethylstilbestrol:
Clear cell carcinoma of vagina
B-Naphthylamine (aniline dyes):
Transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder
Nickel:
Bronchogenic carcinoma
Nitrosamines:
Stomach carcinoma
Oral contraceptives:
Breast, cervical carcinomas
Polycyclic hydrocarbons:
Squamous cell carcinoma: oral cavity, midesophagus, larynx, lung. Adenocarcinoma: distal esophagus, pancreas. Transitional cell carcinoma: urinary bladder, renal pelvis
Polyvinyl chloride:
Liver angiosarcoma
Silica:
Bronchogenic carcinoma
HCV:
Produces postnecrotic cirrhosis. Hepatocellular carcinoma
HTLV-1:
Activates TAX gene, stimulates polyclonal T-cell proliferation, inhibits TP53 suppressor gene. T-cell leukemia and lymphoma
EBV:
promotes polyclonal B-cell proliferation, which increases risk for t(8;14) translocation. Burkitt's lymphoma, CNS (HIV) lymphoma in AIDS, mixed cellularity; Hodgkin's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal (chinese) carcinoma
HBV and HCV:
Activates proto-oncogenes, inactivates TP53 suppressor gene. Hepatocellular carcinoma
HHV-8:
Acts via cytokines released from HIV and HSV. Kaposi sarcoma in AIDS
HPV types 16 and 18:
16: E6 gene product inhibits TP53 suppressor gene. 18: E7 gene product inhibits RB suppressor gene. Squamous cell carcinoma of vulva, vagina, cervix, anus (associated with anal intercourse)
Acanthosis nigricans:
Stomach carcinoma. Black, verrucoid-appearing lesion
Eaton-Lambert syndrome:
Small cell carcinoma of lung. Myasthenia gravis-like symptoms (e.g. muscle weakness)
Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy:
Bronchogenic carcinoma. Periosteal reaction of distal phalanx (often associated with clubbing of nail)
Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis:
Mucus-secreting pancreatic and colorectal carcinomas. Sterile vegetations on mitral valve
Seborrheic keratosis:
Stomach carcinoma. Sudden appearance of numerous pigmented seborrheic keratoses (leser-trelat sign)
Superficial migratory thrombophlebitis:
Pancreatic carcinoma. Release of procoagulants (Trousseau's sign)
AFP (albumin of fetus):
Hepatocellular carcinoma, yolk sac tumore (endodermal sinus tumor) of ovary or testis
Bence Jones Protein:
Multiple myeloma, Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (represent light chains in urine). monoclonal spuke.
CA 15-3:
Breast carcinoma
CA 19-9:
Pancreatic carcinoma
CA 125:
Surface-derived ovarian cancer (e.g. serous cystadenocarcinoma)
CEA:
Colorectal and pancreatic carcinomas- small cell, breast
PSA:
Prostate carcinoma (also increased in prostate hyperplasia)