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36 Cards in this Set

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Fermentation
Aerobic Respiration
What are the two biochemical pathways for energy production?
Fermentation
Final H acceptor is an organic molecule. Oxygen is NOT required. Yield 2 ATP/Glucose

Can take place in anaerobic environment.
Aerobic Respiration
Final H acceptor is free Oxygen. Yield 36-38 ATP/Glucose.
organic
In fermentation, the final H acceptor is an _________ molecule.
Oxygen
In aerobic respiration, the final H acceptor is free ________.
Carbohydrate Catabolism
The breakdown of carbs to release energy.
-glycolysis
-Kreb's cycle
-Electron transport chain
Glycolysis
takes place in cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells.
Kreb's cycle
takes place in mitochondria
C6H12O6
Glucose symbol??
Carbohydrate Catabolism

carbon dioxide
Energy in glucose
Glucose can combine with O2 to produce _____ and water.
6CO2 + 6H2O
What does C6H12O6 + 6O2 converted to in carbohydrate catabolism?
Carbohydrate catabolism
If burned directly, nearly all of its energy is converted to heat.

Glucose must be broken down gradually to "capture" the energy.

High energy electrons are removed from glucose.

Electron acceptors pass these electrons down an energy gradient, the energy is used to synthesize ATP.
heat
If burned directly, nearly all of its energy is converted to _____.
capture
electrons
Glucose must be broken down gradually to "_______" the energy.

High energy __________ are removed from glucose.
Electron acceptors
_________ __________ pass these electrons down an energy gradient, the energy is used to synthesize ATP.
Glycolysis
A molecule of glucose is split into 2 molecules of pyruvate (pyruvic acid) (a 3 carbon molecule).

Requires the input of 2 ATP
4 ATP are produced.
A net gain of 2 ATP
2 NAD+ (oxidized form) are reduced to NADH (reduced form)
pyruvate
A molecule of glucose is splite into 2 molecules of ___________.
Fermentation
Uses GLYCOLYSIS to produce ATP.

Yeilds only 2 ATP net per glucose molecule.
Alcohol fermenters
________ _________ convert pyruvate to ethanol.
Lactate fermenters
_________ __________ convert pyruvate to lactate. (humans do this under certain conditions).
Genetics
The science of heredity. The study of genes: how they carry info, pass the info on and how is that info expressed.
Genes
The functional units of heredity. Contain info (codes) for inherited characteristics: Morphology, metabolism, behavior, pathology, etc.
Genotype
The genetic makeup of an organism. (The info itself)
Genome
The total of all genes (genetic information) in a cell.
Phenotype
The physical/external manifestation of the genotype. (the physical traits or appearance)
Genes
______ consist of segments of DNA.
DNA
A nucleic acid (repeating units called nucleotides)
Three basic parts: Base, Sugar, Phosphate
Base
Adenine
Thymine
Guanine
Cytosine
Sugar
Deoxyribose
Phosphate
this holds the nucleotides together.
Histones
In eukaryotic cells, DNA is wound around cluster of ________. (chromosomal protein)
antiparallel
The 2 strands of DNA face eachother in different directions.
hydrogen bonds
DNA is made up of 2 antiparallel strands joined by __________ _____.
DNA replication
Enzymes unwind the double helix.
DNA polymerase
adds new bases to the new DNA strand.
Semiconservative
One original and one new strand of DNA.