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132 Cards in this Set

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  • 3rd side (hint)
fungi characteristics
most are multicellular
stationary
reproduce by spores
usually can be colorful or white
contain no chlorophyll
cannot make theri own food
what is the function of fungi?
gets nutients from other organism

1. parasite - organism that gets nutrients from another living organism called a host.

2. saprophyte - organism that feeds on dead organic matter example- bracket fungi fallen from tree
how are fungi helpful?
yeast for baking
mushrooms

Penicillin(mold used in making the antibiotic penicillin)
how are fungi harmful?
-mold on food
-bracket fungi on a living tree(harm it)
-fungal diseases- ATHLETE'S FOOD(parasite mold, ring worm
-plant diseases- dutch elm diseas, potato blight
what structures are on fungi?
-HYPHAE- THREADLIKE PART ON MAIN PART OF BODY

SPORES - MICROSCOPIC PART OF FUNGI USED IN REPRODUCTION, (COME IN DIFFERENT SHAPES)
BEST GROWING CONDITIONS FOR FUNGI
WARM, WET AND DARK AREAS
IN FLOWER REPRODUCTION THE OVARY BECOMES THE _________
FRUIT
A FLOWER'S FEMALE PART IS CALLED THE ----
PISTIL
A FLOWERS MALE PART IS CALLED THE
STAMEN
IN A PLANT THE EGG CELL IT CALLED _____

IT JOINS WITH POLLEN DURING FERTILIZATION
OVULE
TWO WAYS ROOTS CAN HELP A PLANT
MAKE IT STAY IN THE GROUND

HELP IT ?
TWO WAYS STEMS CAN HELP A PLANT
SUPPORT THE PLANT AND BRING MINERALS TO THE LEAF
TWO INGREDIENTS FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS
CO2(CARBON DIOXIDE) AND WATER
TWO ORGANISMS OF MONERANS
BACTERIA AND CYAN BACTERIA
DO MONERANS HAVE A NUCLEUS
NO
MONERANS BELONG TO WHAT KINGDOM?
MONERA
HOW IS BACTERIA HELPFUL
EAT SEWAGE
HOW IS BACTERIA HARMFUL
IT CAN MAKE PEOPLE SICK
GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE OF A FISH WITH A CARTILAGE SKELETON
SHARK
AN ADAPTATION FOR THE HAWK IS _______
SHARP TEETH USED FOR TEARING ITS PREY
BODY TEMPERATURE CHANGES WITH ITS SURROUNDINGS
COLD BLOODED
WHY ARE HUMANS MORE COMPLEX THAN ALL VERTEBRATES
WE HAVE A MORE COMPLETE BRAIN AND WE CAN THINK FASTER
CLASS OF VERTEBRATES THAT LIVE PART OF THEIR LIFE IN WATER AND PART OF THEIR LIFE ON LAND
AMPHIBIAN
PROCESS WHICH CELLS USE TO CHANGE FOOD AND OXYGEN INTO ENERGY
CELL RESPIRATION
THE STUDY OF MATTER AND THE CHANGES IT MAKE INSIDE AN ORGANISM
CHEMISTRY
DIFFUSION OF WATER THROUGH A CELL MEMBRANE
OSMOSIS
THE SMALLEST PART OF AN ELEMENT
ATOM
ANYTHING THAT TAKES UP SPACE AND HAS MASS
MATTER
THE SMALLEST PART OF AN ELEMENT
ATOM
DIFFUSION OF WATER THROUGH A CELL MEMBRANE
OSMOSIS
THE SMALLEST PART OF AN ELEMENT
Atom
all organisms contain the elements
carbon, oxygen, hygrogen and nitrogen
is wood burning a physical change or a chemical change
chemical change
what are the letter letters used to represent an element
symbol
what is a symbol and what is a formula
symbol is an abbreviatin for an element

a formula is an abbreviation for a compound
how do you find the total magnification
multiply the eyepiece magnification by the object lens magnification

EYEPICE MAG. X OBJECT LENS MAG.
rules before you use a microscope
1. carry the microscope with two hands
2. clean lenses with lens paper
3. never use the coarse adjustment WITH HIGH POWER OBJECTIVE
4. don't fool around when using the microscope
this layer is usually found on disease causing bacteria outside protective protective layer`
capsule
scud layer that gives bacteria additional durability and shape
cell wall
permeable membrane that has a variety of functions, including bringing chemicals out of the cell
cell membrane
gel-like material inside cell that protects parts and helps materials around the cell
cytoplasm
this par tof the cell makes various proteins
ribosomes
genetic material that controls the functions of the genes of the organism
dna
a tail used for getting around
flagella
a tough band of tissue which holds bones together at the joint
ligament
movable joint that allows bones to move back and forth
hinge joint
in this joint one bone has a rounded end and fits into a hollow in the other bone
ball and socket joint
soft tissue in the center of many bones whic containes nerves and blooc vessels
marrow
a thick, living memebrane or covering of bone
periosteum
movable joint which allows you to twist and rotate
pivot joint
this is found in flat bones and produces red and white blooD cells
red marrow
the hard layer found on the outside of bone
compact bone
what is the purpose of the skeleton
to support and give shape to the body
two minerals that harden bones are called
cacium and phosphorous
how many bones make up the skeleton
206
how many vertebrae make up the spinal cord
24
largest bone in the human body
femur
where did today's coal come from?
many years ago dead ferns wer pressurized under many layers of soil and this produced coal
plants with uUNCOVERED SEEDS USUALLY IN CONES
HAVE NEEDLE LIKE LEAVES
GREEN ALL YEAR LONG
VESSELS TO TRANSPORT MATERIALS
GYMNOSPERM
EXAMPLES O9F GYMNOSPERMS
PINE, SPRUCE FIR TAMARACK
PLANTS WITH FLOWERS AND COVERED SEEDS
HAVE VASCULAR TISSUE
ANGIOSPERM
TWO FUNCTINS OF LEAVES
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
TAKE WATER AND NUTRIENTS FROM SOIL
ANGIOSPERM CHARACTERISTICS


FOUR EXAMPLES
FLOWERS PRODUCE FRUIT WITH SEEDS INSIDE
FRUIT PROTECTS SEEDS

ROSES, TULIPS, MAPLE, OAK, ZUCHINNI
WHAT IS XYLEM
TUBES WHICH CARRY WATER AND MINERALS UP FROM THE ROOTS
WHAT IS PHLOEM
TUBES WHICH CARRY FOOD MAKE IN THE LEAVES TO THE FOOT OF THE PLANT
WHAT DO STEMS DO
SUPPORT THE LEAVES AND WHOLE PLANT

TRANSPORT OR CARRY WATER AND MINERALS TO LEAVES
PHOTOSYNTHES EQUATION
CO2+H2O ----SUNLIGHT AND CHLOROPHYL----
= O2+ SUGAR
CHARACTERISTIC OF A FERN
1. ROOTS CALLED RHIZOMES
2. LIVE IN MOIST AREAS
3. THOUGHT TO BE THE FIRST LAND PLANTS
name the five kingdoms
plant
animal-
fungi
protist- single celled
moneran- cyanbcteria and bacteria-
what does a bacterium form to protect itself from cold weather
endospore
cyanobacteria can make its own food because it contains
chlorophylL
a large group of bacteria is called
a colony
two organisms found in the Moneran Kingdom
bacteria
cyanbacteria
name three characteristics of the Monerans
no nucleus
one celled
tiny organism
three shapes of bacteria
rod
spiral
circular
name the three shapes of bacteria
rod - bacillus
spiral - spirullum
circular - coccus
two ways bacteria can be helpful
flavoring cheese
reduce sewage
fight desease
how can bacteria be harmful
cause desease
a hairlike structure that helps paramecium get around
cilia
tail-like structure that helps the euglena move
flagellum
protective covering outside of a protist, helps it survive dry, cold conditions
cyst
called " false feet on the amoeba, helps it move
pseudopod
how does an amoeba eat
wrap pseudopod around food
IS CRUSHING A ROCK CHEMICAL CHANGE OR PHYSICAL CHANGE
PHYSICAL
THIS KIND OF JOINT HAS VERY LITTLE MOVEMENT - EXAMPLE THE SKULL
FIXED JOINT
FUNCTIONS OF THE SKELETON
1. PROVIDES SHAPE AND SUPPORT TO THE BODY
2. PROVIDES A FRAME TO WHICH MUSCLES ARE ATTACHED
3. PROTECTS INTERNAL ORGANS SUCH AS LUNGS, HEART ETC
4.SUPPLIES AND STORES MINERALS/CALCIUM/POSPHOROUS
5. HELPS FORM BLOOD CELLS
THIS BONE HAS OPEN SPACES FOUND TOWARD THE END OF BONES
SPONGY BONE
THIS BONE IS HARD NOT SPONGY
COMPACT BONE
SOFT TISSUE IN THE CENTER OF THE BONE WHICH CONTAINS NERVES AND BLOOD VESSELS
MARROW- THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF MARROW YELLOW AND RED
THIS KIND OF MARROW IS FOUND IN FLAT BONES LIKE RIBS
- PRODUCES RED AND WHITE BLOOD CELLS
RED MARROW
THIS MARROW IS MOSTLY FAT TISSUE AND FOUND AT THE CENTER OF LONG BONES- IF THERE IS LOSS LARGE LOSS OF BLOOD THIS MARROW CAN PRODUCE RED BLOOD CELLS.
YELLOW MARROW
THIS IS THE BONE COVERING- IT IS A THICK TOUGH COVERING
PERIOSTEUM
A TOUGH BONE TISSUE THAT HOLDS BONES TOGETHER
LIGAMENT
TUBE OPENINGS IN BONE
HAVERSIAN CANALS
HOW MANY BONES ARE IN THE EAR
3 TINY BONES
TWO MINERALS THAT HARDEN BONE
CALDIUM AND PHOSPHOROUS
NAME OF THE BREASTBONE
STERNUM
NAME OPF THE LEG BONES
FIBULA
FEMUR
TIBIA
NAME OF ARM BONES
HUMEROUS
RADIUS
ULNAR
A TRAIT WHICH STAYS HIDDEN WHEN A DOMINANT FORM IS PRESENT
RECESSIVE
A FORM OF A TRAIT WHICH ALWAYS SHOWS UP
DOMINANT
UNIT OF INHERITANCE THAT IS PASSED FROM PARENT TO OFFSPRING
GENE
A THREADLIKE STRUCTURE IN CELLS NUCLEUS WHICH CARRIES THE GENETIC CODE
CHROMOSOME
IN SCIENTIFIC METHOD THE ANSWER TO THE EXPERIMENT BASED ON THE CHANGES YOU SEE
CONCLUSION
SCIENTIFIC METHOD

AN IDEA WHICH EXPLAINS SOMETHING
IS THE THEORY
IN SCIENTIFIC METHOD THE QUESTION TO BE ANSWERED IS THE ____
PROBLEM
NAME THE FOUR STEPS
OBSERVATION- OF THE DATA(INFORMATION) YOU HAVE
HYPOTHESIS- AN EDUCATED GUESS ABOUT THE POSSIBLE EXPLANATION OF THE DATA(INFORMATION) BEFORE TESTING IT

PROCEDURE- WHAT HAPPENS DURING THE TEST

CONCLUSION- THE ANSWER TO THE EXPERIMENT
IN THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD THE FIRST STEP OF OBSERVATION USUALLY HAS A QUESTION TO BE ANSWERED. WHAT IS THIS QUESTION CALLED.
THE PROBLEM
the question is always the problem
IN THE BEGINING OF SCIENTIFIC METHOD YOU ARE OBSERVING THE DATA YOU HAVE.

DURING THE EXPERIMENT YOU ARE OBSERVING WHAT IS GOING ON. THE FACTS YOU GAIN DURING THE EXPERIMENT ARE CALLED.
DATA - (DATA IS INFORMATION)

when data is based on facts then it is true
fact meaning- true information
data - information
a step by step way of solving a scientific problem
scientific method
a test to find out why things happen
experiment
the part of the experiment that does not change
is called the control group
this group in the experiment changes
variable
group a group b
spider plant spider plant
placed in soil placed in soil
water &sunny daily water, sunny
daily but
fertilizer added
1. which is the control group?
2. which is the variable group?
3. the best hypothesis (educated guess before you do experiment) is?

see hint for answers
1. the plant without fertilizer
2. the plant with fertilizer(variable changes- fertilizer added)
3. the plant in group b will grow faster after one week
basic unit of all living things
cell
who was the first person to look at cells under a simple microscope
ROBERT HOOKE
PROVIDES THE MOST OBJECT-MAFNIFICATION ON WHICH IS USUALLY ABOUT 40X
HIGH POWER
PROVIDES THE LEAST MAGNIFICATION - USUALLY 10X
LOW POWER OBJECTIVE
MOVES THE BODY TUBE UP AND DOWN FOR FOCUSING
COARSE ADJUSTMENT
WHO INVENTED THE MICROSCOPE
ANTON VANLEEUWENHOEK
WHO WAS THE FIRST PERSON TO SEE MICROBES-BACTERIA
THE SAME PERSON WHO INVENTED THE MICROSCOPE - ANTON VAN LEEUWENHOEK
IN A DISSECTING MICROSCOPE THE SIZE OF THE OBJECT MUST BE
3D LARGE AND SOLID
IN THE DISSECTING MICROSCOPE THERE ARE TWO EYEPIECES- THESE EYEPIECES MAGNIFY HOW MANY TIMES
20
A COMPOUND LIGHT MICROSCOPE ALSO HAS TW0 LENS OR SOMETIMES MORE THE OBJECT TO BE SEEN MUST BE
TRANSPARENT, THIN, MICROSCOPIC(CANNOT BE SEEN WITH EYE), FLAT
IN A LIGHT MICROSCOPE HOW IS THE OBJECT SEEN
THE LIGHT PASSES THROUGH THE OBJECT
1.WHAT IS AN OBJECT CALLED WHEN IT IS LARGE ENOUGH TO BE SEEN BY THE EYE

2.WHAT IS AN OBJECT CALLED WHEN IT IS TOO SMALL TO BE SEEN BY THE EYE
1.MACROSCOPIC - BEGINS WITH(MA)

2. MICROSCOPIC - BEGINS WITH (MI)
THIS TYPE OF MICROSCOPE ONLY HAS ONE LENS
SIMPLE MICROSCOPE
WHAT DOES THE LENS IN A MICROSCOPE DO
MAGNIFY
IN A MICROSCOPE WHAT IS THE MIRROR USED FOR
TO DIRECT THE LIGHT UP THROUGH THE STAGE
WHY IS THE DIAPHRAM ADJUSTED
TO ALLOW MORE LIGHT IN
WHICH POWER OBJECTIVE DO YOU PUT IN PLACE FIRST
THE LOW POWER OBJECTIVE
1. WHICH KNOB IS USED TO RAISE AND LOWER THE BODY TUBE VERY LITTLE AND IS USED FOR HIGH POWER

2. WHICH KNOB IS USED TO RAISE ANDLOWER THE BODY TUBE MORE(ABOUT SEVERAL INCHES)
1. FINE ADJUSTMENT KNOB

2. COARSE ADJUSTMENT KNOB