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56 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name the three main layers of the Earth's interior
Crust, Mantle, and Core
Name the three different types of rock
Igneous, Metamorphic, Sedimentary
How is an igneous rock formed?
In a volcano
How is a sedimentary rock formed?
Layers of sediment pile up and pressure is exposed to them
How is a metamorphic rock formed?
Heat and Pressure
(Ponies hate Mangoes)
In a compound, chemical engery is contained in the ________
Ionization energies tend to ______ from left to right across a period. (increase/decrease)
Name a typical property of an ionic compound
Tendency to shatter when struck
(T/F) Ionic compounds are crystals.
Name 2 properties of metals.
Metals are shiny and malleable, they are good conducters of electric current
In a periodic table, a set of properties repeats from _____________ to ____________
group to group
How do you find the atomic mass of an element?
It is the sum of the protons and neutrons.
Mendeleev arranged the known chemical elements in a table according to increasing________
How are rocks classified?
By how they are formed!
99% of all matter that can be observed in the universe exists in what state of matter?
During a phase change, the temperature of a substance ________
does not change
What is the heat of fusion for water?
The amount of energy needed for water to melt
The state of matter that exists only at extremely laow temps
Bose-Einstein Condensate
The Kinetic Theory of Matter
All particles of matter are in constant motion
If a material contains three elements joined together in a fixed composition, it is a ______
If a substance cannot be broken down, it is a _______
an element/made of one kind of atom
The tendency of a liquid to keep from flowing
A material's ability to let heat and electricity pass through it
The ability of a solid to be hammered without it breaking
The resistance of a mineral to scratching
The ratio of a material's mass to its volume
the way a mineral's surface reflects light
A mixture that forms when substances dissolve and form a homogeneous mixture
A heterogeneous mixture that separates into layers over time
A mixture that contains some particles that are intermediate in seze between the small particles in a solution and the large ones in a suspention
Who provided evidence for the existence of a nucleus in an atom?
Ernest Rutherford
What did John Dalton observe about when elements combine in a compound?
The ratio of their masses is always the same
JJ Thompson's provided what evidence?
That an atom contains negatively charged particles
How do electrons move in Bohr's model of an atom?
Electrons move like planets orbiting the sun
The word atom comes from a greek word meaning....
Metals become increasinly reactive as we go (up/down) and (right/left) on the table
down, left
The formation of an ionic bond involves the (sharing/transfer) of electrons
What does a catalyst do?
Speeds up a reation
what does pH stand for?
Potential of Hydrogen
What do bases form when dissolved in water?
Hydroxide ions
What do acids form when dissolved in water?
Hydronium ions
What is a proton donor?
an acid
What is a proton acceptor
a base
Main points in Dalton's theory of atoms.
-All elements are composed of atoms
-In a particular compund, atoms of different elements always combine the same way
-Compounds contain atoms of more than one element
WHat did Thomson do?
"plum pudding model"
-positive charges in atom
What did Rutherford do?
"gold foil experiment"
-dense, positively charged nucleus
-electrons move randomly around nucleus
-most of atom is empty space
What did BOhr say?
He said that electrons move in spherical orbits at fixed distances from nucleus around it
Electron Cloud model ----> probablility
What are Isotopes?
They are atoms with the same atomic number, but w/ different atomic masses. THis is b/c they have a different # of neutrons than the regular atome.
What is an experiment?
An organized procedure to test a hypothesis
What is a variable?
The part of an experiment that changes
What is a dependant variable?
It is what you are measuring, it depends on the independant variable
-Y axis
Independant variable?
EX: time
-X axis
What are the steps of the Scientific Method in order from first to last?
-Identify the Problem
-Gather Info
-State a Hypothesis
-Design and carry out an experiment
-Make observations and record data
-Organize and analyze data
-State conclusion
What are the three branches of science?
Physical, Earth/Space, and Life sciences
Physical Science is broken up into what two sub-categories?
Physics and Chemistry