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53 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What does the brainstem do?
Links the spinal cord to the brain.
What cranial nerve nuclei are in the brainstem?
3-12
What major structures are in the brainstem?
The ascending and descending tracts
Function of Reticular formation:
Alertness and attention
What type of neurotransmitter systems arise in the brianstem?
Monoaminergic
What are the 3 monoaminergic systems that arise in the brainstem?
1. Norepinephrine
2. Dopamine
3. Serotonin
What is the nucleus where NE is produced?
Locus coerulus
What is the nucleus where Dopamine is produced?
Substantia nigra
What is the nucleus where Serotonin is produced?
Dorsal raphe nuclei
6 sources of blood supply to the brainstem:
-Anterior spinal
-Posterior spinal
-PICA
-AICA
-SCA
-PCA
3 Components of the Brainstem:
-Midbrain
-Pons
-Medulla
What 4 external features can be seen in the midbrain?
1. Corpora quadrigemina
2. Interpeduncular fossa
3. Cerebral peduncles
4. CNs 3 and 4
What is the corpora quadrigemina? Functions?
Superior colliculi = vision
Inferior colliculi = hearing
What are the cerebral peduncles?
The connection from the medulla to the cerebral cortex
What are the 3 general divisions of the internal midbrain?
1. Tectum
2. Cerebral peduncles
3. Cerebral aqueduct
What is the tectum made up of?
The colliculi (sup/inf)
What are the 3 structures housed within the Cerebral peduncle?
1. Tegmentum
2. Substantia nigra
3. Crus cerebri
The TEGMENTUM consists of what 4 things?
1. Cranial nerve nuclei (3 / 4)
2. Red nucleus
3. Reticular formation
4. Various fiber tracts that are not crus cerebri
What is the crus cerebri?
Descending fiber tracts from the cortex.
What is the Basis pontis and where is it seen?
It is the base of the Pons and the sight of many fiber crossings - seen externally.
3 External feature seen on the pons:
-Middle and superior cerebellar peduncles
-Superior medullary velum
-Emerging Trigeminal nerve CN V
What cranial nerve nuclei are housed within the pons?
CN V, VI, and VII (5-7)
5 other things that are in the internal Pons:
-Cerebellar peduncles (all)
-Pontine nuclei
-Reticular formation
-Fiber tracts
-4th ventricle
What external structures can be seen at the Pontine-medullary junction?
CN VI, VII, and VIII (6-8)
What are 2 structures housed within the internal pontine-medullary junction?
-Dorsal and Ventral CN 8 nuclei
-Inferior cerebellar peduncle
What major 'column'-like structures make up the external medulla?
-Pyramids
-Olives
-Gracile tubercle
-Cuneate tubercle
What cranial nerves emerge from the external medulla?
9-12
What ventricular structure is at the external pons?
The obex - the opening of the 4th ventricle.
What cranial nerve nuclei are housed in the internal medulla? (7)
-Spinal nucleus and tract of V
-CN 8 and 12 nucleus
-DMNX (dors motor nu: of ten)
-NTS (nucleus tractus solitarus)
-Vestibular nucleus
-Nucleus ambiguus
What non-cranial nerve nuclei are in the internal medulla?
-Inferior olivary nucleus
-Dorsal column nuclei (gracilis and cuneatus)
What 3 non-nuclei structures are in the internal medulla?
-Reticular formation
-4th ventricle
-fiber tracts
What happens to the spinal cord organization as the central canal opens into the 4th ventricle?
It goes from being dorsal-ventrally organized to lateral-medial
What does dorsal end up as?
What does ventral end up as?
Basal/ventral plate -> medial
Alar/dorsal plate -> lateral
What are the 3 ascending tracts from the spinal cord to brain?
-Dorsal column (medial lemniscal system)
-Anterolateral system
-Spinocerebellar tract
What information does the dorsal column system relay?
Fine touch and 2point discrimination.
How many neurons in the dorsal column system?
3 neuron relay
What are the 3 steps in the Dorsal column system?
1. DRG to gracile/cuneatus nuclei (synapse in medulla)
2. Ascend as medial lemniscus, cross midline, to contralateral thalamus
3. Thalamus to cortex
What information does the anterolateral system convey?
Pain and temp
How many neurons in the anterolateral system?
3 neuron relay
What are the 3 steps in the anterolateral pathway?
1. DRG to spinal cord
2. Cross to contralateral anterolateral column then ascend to thalamus
3. Thalamus to cortex
What is the function of the spinocerebellar tract? What makes it unique?
-Functions for balance
-Unique because it's only 2 neurons and ipsilateral
What are the steps of the spinocerebellar tract?
1. DRG -> spinal cord
2. Spinal cord to cerebellum
4 Major Descending Tracts:
-Corticospinal
-Corticobulbar
-Corticopontine
-Extrapyramidal
Which is ipsilateral?
Corticopontine
Does the corticopontine tract stay ipsilateral?
No it crosses to the contralateral cerebellum.
Which tract is the major output of the cortex?
Corticospinal
How is the corticospinal tract arranged? (4 steps in the pathway)
1. Cortex
2. Basis pontis
3. Pyramids (decussation crosses here)
4. Spinal cord
How is the corticobulbar tract arranged in general?
It has crossed and uncrossed tracts.
Where do cortical projections in the corticobulbar tract synapse?
At cranial nerve nuclei
To which CN nuclei does the corticobulbar tract have direct connections?
V, VII, XII (5, 7, 12)
What are the steps in the corticopontine tract?
1. Cortex
2. Pontine nuclei (synapse)
3. Contralateral cerebellum
What is the extrapyramidal system?
Highly complex - major ganglia and tracts that control involuntary muscle movement.
What defines the extrapyramidal system?
Made of motor tracts that do not pass through the pyramidal area in ventral medulla.