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33 Cards in this Set

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What are the contents of the Anterior mediastinum?
Thymus and fat
What are the contents of the Middle mediastinum?
Heart, major vessels, main bronchi, phrenic nerves
Where are the mediastina located?
On the midline BETWEEN the lungs
What are the contents of the Superior mediastinum?
arch of aorta, lagamentum arteriosum, pulmonary and brachiocephalic trunks
subclavian and carotid arteries, brachiocephalic veins, superior vena cava, thoracic and rt lymphatic ducts, trachea and bronchi, vagus and phrenic nerves, sympathetic chain
What are the contents of the Posterior mediastinum?
Descending aorta, esophagus, vagus, thoracic duct, azygos and hemiazygos veins, sympathetic trunk, superior vena cava, spanchnic nerves, intercostal vessels and nerves
All splanchnic nerves carry sympathetic fibers except for the ________ splanchnic nerves, which carry parasympathetic fibers.
pelvic
The azygos vein is a drains into the _________ and curves up and over the _______ and the _________.
Superior vena cava

Right bronchus and right pulmonary artery
Which nerve runs medial to the azygos vein?
Right phrenic which runs into the fibrous pericardium.
Which nerve runs posterior to the phrenic?
Vagus - sensory to the organs
Coming off of the sympathetic chain and going MEDIAL are the _______ nerves.
splanchnic
Nerves that come off the sympathetic trunk and go LATERAL are the ________ nerves
intercostal
What 2 layers make up the serous pericardium?
The parietal and visceral layers
What innervates the pericardium?
Phrenic, vagus, and sympathetic trunks
Right coronary artery runs in the _________ sulcus
atrioventricular
What 3 branches does the right coronary artery give off?
Right marginal branch, posterior interventricular, and the nodal artery
What does the left coronary artery give off?
anterior interventricular, circumflex branch, and left marginal branch
The anterior interventricular artery anastomoses with what?
posterior interventricular
Circumflex branch anastomoses with what?
right coronary artery
The oblique vein, great, middle, and small cardiac veins drain where?

What cardiac veins drain DIRECTLY into the right atrium (not to the coronary sinus)
Coronary sinus

Anterior cardiac veins
The smooth surface in the right atrium formed from what?

The rough surface developed from what?

What is the junction between them?
Smooth - from vena cava

Rough - from heart muscle

Crista terminalis
What is the name of a notable depression inside the right atrium?
oval fossa
How many cusps do the right and left atrium have?
Right - 3 cusps (tricuspid valve)

Left - 2 cusps (mitral valve)
What connects travels from the intraventricular walls to the papillary muscles?
Septomarginal trabecula

This shortens the distance for impulse to run.
The ________ muscles contract and pull on the chordae tendinae, which close the cusps.
papillary
In the FETAL pattern of circulation, how does blood bypass the liver?
through the ductus venosus
What does the umbilical vein become after birth?
Ligamentum teres hepatis
The ductus arteriosus becomes the _________ after birth.
Ligamentum arteriosum
During diastole what valves are open and closed.
Filling

Aortic and pulmonary valve closed

Tricsucpid and mitral valves open
During systole what valves are open and closed?
Emptying

Tricuspid and mitral valves closed

Aortic and pulmonary valves open
What is stage 1 and stage 2 high blood pressure
stage 1: 140-159 / 90-99

stage 2: 160 or > / 100 or >
Mitral valve disease can result in:
left ventricular hypertrophy

increased pulmonary venous pressure

pulmonary edema

difficulty breathing

enlargement (dilation) and hypertrophy of left atrium
What are the 4 defects in the Tetralogy of Fallot?
Ventricular septal defect

pulmonary stenosis

overriding aorta (aorta receives some blood from right ventricle, which reduces amount of oxygen in blood)

right ventricular hypertophy
What are the 4 most common congenital heart defects?
atrial septal defect

ventricular septal defect

persistent ductus arteriosus

tetralogy of fallot