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32 Cards in this Set

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What is tachyphylaxis?
medical term describing a rapid decrease in the response to a drug after repeated doses over a short period of time
what is idiosyncrasy?
an unusual reaction of any intensity, irrespective of drug dosage
who is considered the founder of the scientific method?
Fracis Bacon
What are extension effects?
These happen when the therapeutic effect becomes toxic.
What are side effects?
NOT RELATED to therapeutic application but predictable based on the physiological/biochemical properties.
What is an important side effect of Phenytoin?

What is the theory behind it?
Gingival hyperplasia

It increases expression of PDGF that stimulates cell growth and division.
What makes quinidine an interesting drug?
It was originally used as an antimalarial, but was found to also be antiarrhythmic.
What is the equation for Therapeutic index?
LD50 / ED50
What is the Certain Safety Factor equation?
LD01 / ED 99
Are drugs more likely to pass through the placental membrane early or late in pregnancy?
LATE because the placenta gets THINNER later in pregnancy
Major malformations are usually the result of exposure to drugs during the critical period of _________, which is the _____ trimester
organogenesis

first trimester
Exposure to drugs during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters usually affect what?
organ function.
Taking lysergic acid diethylamide during the 1st trimester has what effect to the fetus?
chromosomal damage, stunted growth
Taking opiod analgesics at term has what effect to the fetus/baby?
Respiratory depression, neonatal death
What embryonic weeks are the highest sensitivity period for enamel hypoplasia and staining, and cleft palate?
7-9 weeks
Hox genes do what?
control segmentation of the branchial arches and are important for craniofacial development
What is category A for drugs for pregnant patients?
Studies in both animals and humans do not show risk.
What is category B for drugs for pregnant patients?
Animal studies have shown no risk, but there are no human studies

OR

Animal studies have shown a risk, but human studies do NOT
What is category C for drugs for pregnant patients?
Animal studies have shown risk, but there are no human studies

OR

There are no available animal or human studies
What is category D for drugs for pregnant patients?
Evidence of risk exists, but benefits OUTWEIGH risks
What is category X for drugs for pregnant patients?
Risks OUTWEIGH benefits
At equilibrium, weak _____ are more concentrated in breast milk
weak bases
Adult values of ABSORPTION are usually achieved at what age?
2yrs
Adult values of DRUG DISTRIBUTION are usually achieved at what age?
by the first year of life
Drug dosages typically begin to approach adult values when?

METABOLISM
in ADOLESCENCE
What is the last thing to approach adult values in the pediatric pation?
METABOLISM
What is the most common way to estimate the ability of the liver to metabolize drugs?
Determine the Child-Pugh score
What are the Child-Pugh scores and what do they mean?
5 = normal liver fxn

5-8 = no dosage modification needed

8-9 = Decrease initial daily does by 25%

>10 = Decrease initial daily dose by 50%
What is the normal Creatinine Clearance Rate? (Cl cr)
140ml / min
Adjustment to drug dosage is necessary only when Creatinine clearance drops below __ to __ ml per minute
30 to 40
The degree of renal failure is defined by what?
Creatinine clearance
Beta 2 receptors are specific for __________.
epinephrine