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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The two fundamental operations associated with public key cryptography include _ and _.
encryption
authentication
A key is a random string-such as a _, ASCII value, _, or phrase-that is used in conjunction with an _.
number
word
algorithm
For public key encryption, every user has a pair of _ related keys, including:

A _ key, which is kept confidential.
A _ key, which is freely given out to all potential correspondents.
mathematically
private
public
In a typical scenario, a sender uses the _ public key to encrypt a message. Only the recipient has the related _ key to decrypt the message. By making your _ key available, other people can send you encrypted data that can only be _ by using your _ key.
recipient's
private
public
decrypted
private
The fundamental property of public key encryption is that the encryption and decryption keys are _
different
Encryption with a public key is a _ function
one-way
When you encrypt a document with a public key, _ turns into _ text
plaintext
cipher
A decryption key, which is _ but not _ to the encryption key, is needed to turn the cipher text back into plaintext
related
identical
Public key authentication uses _ key cryptography to authenticate and verify the originator of _ data in e-mail, e-_, and other electronic transactions
public
electronic
commerce
Instead of using the _ _ key to decrypt a message, the sender's _ _ is used to authenticate and _ the sender of the message. A _ _ _ that uniquely _ the contents of the message is encrypted with the private key to create a digital signature. A digital signature _the role of the private and public keys.
sender's private
public key
validate
string of characters
identifies
swaps
A _ _ is a means for the originator of a message, file, or other digitally encoded information to _ his or her _ to the information. The signature itself is a _ _ _ appended to a digital document.
digital signature
bind
identity
sequence of bits
A digital signature uses an algorithm called a _ _ . _ algorithms are designed to guarantee that if a single byte changes, processing the document generates a completely _ _.
hash algorithm
Hash
different hash
When a hash is encrypted by using a _ _, any modification of the signed data _ the digital signature.
public key
invalidates
A certification authority (CA) is responsible for providing and assigning the keys for e_, d_n, and au_
ncryption
ecryptio
thentication
A CA distributes keys by issuing _, which contain the _ key and a set of attributes. A CA can issue certificates to a c_, a user _, or a _e
certificates
public
omputer
account
servic
Certificates are signed documents that match_ _ to other information, such as a name or an _ _
public keys
e-mail address
Certificates are signed by _ _ _ _
CAs that issue certificates
A CA's signature _ that the public key does indeed _ to the party that presents it.
guarantees
belong
A CA can be _ or _.
external
internal
Additionally every CA has a _ to confirm its own identity, issued by another _ _or by _.
certificate
trusted CA
itself
The process for issuing a certificate has four basic steps:

1) The CA accepts a _ _.

2) The CA _ the requester's information according to the _-_-_ requirements of the CA.

3) The CA uses its _ _ to apply its digital signature to the certificate.

4) The CA issues the certificate for use as a security credential within a _.
certificate request
verifies
proof-of-identity
private key
PKI
A CA is also responsible for _ certificates and for publishing a _. Revocation of a certificate _ the certificate as a trusted security credential before the _ of the certificate's validity period.
revoking
Certificate Revocation List (CRL).
invalidates
expiration
If a CA's certificate is revoked, then all certificates that the CA issued are _ _.
all revoked
A certificate hierarchy is a model of _ in which certification paths are created through the establishment of _/_ relationships between CAs
trust
parent/child
A root CA, sometimes called a _ _, is meant to be the most _ type of CA in an organization's PKI.
root authority
trusted
subordinate CA is a CA that has been certified by _ _ in your organization.
another CA
Major components of a PKI:

Certificate _.
A_ _
_-enabled a_
Services
ctive Directory
PKI
pplications
In addition, Windows 2000 PKI components use industry security protocols, including:
_
_
_
SSL
IPSEC
TLS
Server authentication. Uses certificates to _ servers to clients. _ is an example.
authenticate
E-commerce
Client authentication. Uses certificates to authenticate _ _ _. _ _functionality and smart card authentication are examples.
clients to servers
Remote access
Code signing. Uses certificates associated with key pairs to sign _ _.
active content.
Secure e-mail. Uses certificates associated with key pairs to sign _ _.
e-mail messages
EFS. Uses two certificates associated with key pairs. One certificate is for _ _ _ and one certificate is used for _ recovery.
encryption and decryption
EFS
IPSec. Uses certificates associated with key pairs to encrypt _ network traffic
IP-based