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103 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the 4 categories of altered meaning (clarity) on SC? Describe
Word placement, known vs. unknown, multiple meanings, such as vs. like
Describe clarity of meaning: Known versus unknown. Name words of uncertainty.
Questions where original sentence is certain about an outcome, but the answer choices indicate uncertainty (or vice versa). May, might, should, ought, would, can, could…(were vs. were as if)
Such as vs. like
Such as indicates examples. Like indicates similarity. Animals such as lions and zebras live in Africa. Animals like lions and zebras live in Africa.
Name the additive phrases that DO NOT create a compound subject:
along with, in addition to, as well as, accompanied by, together with, including
Only the word _______ creates a combound subject
AND
Name the words that create disjunctive prhases (two subjects)
or, either…or, neither…nor
For disjuncitve phrases, what is the rule for subjects and verbs?
Find the subject nearest to the verb and make sure that the verb agrees in number with the subject.
When the words _______ or ________ are in a sentence alone, they are NOT considered to be part of a disjunctive phrase and take _______ verbs.
EITHER or NEITHER are in sentences alone, they take SINGULAR verbs
Collective nouns are always considered __________.
SINGULAR.
List indefinite pronouns that are always considered SINGULAR.
Anyone, anybody, anything, everyone, everybody, everything, whatever, whoever, either, neither, someone, somebody, something, no one, nobody, nothing, each, every.
5 indefinite pronouns that can be either SINGULAR or PLURAL…how do you tell
SANAM: Some, Any, None, All, Most. Look at the "of construction" (object of preposition)
When each / every is the subject of the sentence, it requires _______ form
SINGULAR.
When each / every precedes the subject, then the verb is _______
SINGULAR.
When each / everyis AFTER subject it has _____________
no bearing on the verb form. Ex: They each are great tennis players.
The phrase, "the number of" always takes the __________ form
SINGULAR.
The phrase, "a number of" always takes the __________ form
PLURAL
If the subject of a sentence is an entire phrase / clause, then the verb is ______
SINGULAR. Having good friends IS a wonderful thing.
When in doubt of S-V agremeent, think __________
SINGULAR.
The two types of subjects that are ALWAYS plural are:
Subjects joined by the word AND. Subjects preceded by "a number of".
The three types of subjects that are sometimes PLURAL / SINGULAR:
Disjunctive phrases, SANAM pronouns, other numerical words.
The two verb moods tested on the GMAT:
indicative and subjunctive
Never split an _______
infinitive.
Present perfect
have / has + past participle. Something that started in the past and is still going.
Past perfect
had + past participle. The before before tense.
BEGIN => Irregular Verbs
begin, began, has/have/had begun
BROUGHT => Irregular Verbs
brought, brought, has/have/had brought
DO => Irregular Verbs
do, did, has/have/had done
DRINK => Irregular Verbs
drink, drank, has/have/had drunk
FORGET => Irregular Verbs
forget, forgot, has/have/had forgotten
GET => Irregular Verbs
get, got, has/have/had gotten
GO => Irregular Verbs
go, went, has/have/had gone
HANG (object) => Irregular Verbs
hang, hung, has/have/had hung
HANG (person) => Irregular Verbs
hang, hanged, has/have/had hanged
LAY (to put) => Irregular Verbs
lay, laid, has/have/had laid
LIE (to tell an untruth) => Irregular Verbs
lie, lied, has/have/had lied
LIE (to recline) => Irregular Verbs
lie, lay, has/have/had lain
RISE => Irregular Verbs
rise, rose, has/have/had risen
SWIM => Irregular Verbs
swim, swam, has/have/had swum
THROW => Irregular Verbs
throw, threw, has/have/had thrown
Sentences that use the word IF to describe hypothetical conditions require a conditional verb construction:
PRESENT: If x, then x WILL + BASE VERB. PAST: If x, then x WOULD/COULD + BASE. PAST PERFECT: If x, then x WOULD/COULD + HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE
"If" versus "Whether"
If does not always signal a conditional sentence. If the word if carries the meaning of whether, then the GMAT prefers whether instead of if.
When do you use the subjunctive mood?
1.) IF clauses, when the IF clause expresses a condition contrary to reality. 2.) Hopes, proposals, desires, and requests formed with the word that.
What is the format of the subjunctive with the IF clause.
If x were, y would. Or x would, if y were. "If he was"is always wrong on the GMAT. If he were tall, he would play basketball better.
What is the format of the subjunctive with hopes, wishes, desires, requests formed with that…
that + the infinitive verb (without the word to). It is urgent that she SIGN the permission slip.
The passive voice is formed with a form of _____
"to be" followed by a participle. The pizza was eaten by the hungry students.
_____is also required when non-underlined portion of sentence contains person / agent performing the action preceded by the word ___.
Passive….by. The shuttle launch WAS seen around the world by people of all ages.
Name three pronoun rules:
1.) Every pronoun must clearly refer to 1 and only 1 antecedent. 2.) Does pronoun agree with antecedent in number? 3.) Does pronoun agree with case (subject, object, possessive)?
I => Subject/Object/Possessive pronouns
I, me, my/mine
you => Subject/Object/Possessive pronouns
you, you, your/yours
he => Subject/Object/Possessive pronouns
he, him, his
she => Subject/Object/Possessive pronouns
she, her, her/hers
it => Subject/Object/Possessive pronouns
it, it, its
we => Subject/Object/Possessive pronouns
we, us, our/ours
they => Subject/Object/Possessive pronouns
they, them, their/theirs
who => Subject/Object/Possessive pronouns
who, whom, whose
Possessive pronouns can refer back to possessive nouns. But, ___ and ___ pronouns cannot refer back to ______ nouns
But, subject and object pronouns may NOT refer back to possessive nouns. INCORRECT EXAMPLE: Jose's room is so messy, that his mother calls him a pig.
Deadly 4 pronouns on GMAT:
it, its, they, their
Modifiers are usually ______________
set off by commas.
After you find a modifying phrase, find the ____ being modified. If it is not there, then then you have a ________
Find the Noun being modified. If you can't find it, then you have a dangling modifier.
Modifier should always touch the _____it modifies.
Modifier should always touch the noun it modifies.
Dangling modifiers often appear in sentences that have ________ nouns.
Possessive nouns => INCORRECT EX: Unskilled in complex math, Bill's score was bad. CORRECT: Unskilled in complex math, Bill had a poor score.
Adverbial modifiers _______ need to touch the words they modify.
Adv. Modifiers do not need to touch the words they modify.
How do you know if a modifier is an adverbial modifier?
If it answers the question: how?
Modifying phrases are introduced by ________ pronouns. List (6)
Relative pronouns => which, that, where, who whose, whom.
That vs which
That introduces essential modifiers. Which introduces non-essential modifiers
who vs which vs that ??
Who introduces a person / people. Which introduces phrases that modify things. That modifies either people or things.
Who / whom can introduce _______ or ________ modifiers
essential / non-essential modifiers
The relative pronoun _______ often signals trouble on the GMAT…
which. When which is used as a relative pronoun, it refers to the noun immediately preceding it. EX: The police found the murder weapon, which made the prosecutor's job much easier. If which refers to the action of the preceding clause, you must look among the choices for an alternative that either links which properly with the noun antecedent, or rework the sentence to avoid the use of which.
When working with parallel infinitives, it is acceptable to leave out the word ___ in all the infinitives after the first.
to….
Often pronouns signal parallel structures: (4)
which, that, those, who
Many idioms have parallel structure…what words indicate parallel structure?
more, less, as, same, from, both, etc….
More x ____ Y => Idioms w/ Parallel Structure
More x than y
the more x the _____ Y => Idioms w/ Parallel Structure
The more x the greater y
No less was x _____ _____ Y => Idioms w/ Parallel Structure
No less was X than was Y
As x ___ Y => Idioms w/ Parallel Structure
As x to y
Not only X _____ _____Y => Idioms w/ Parallel Structure
Not only x but also y
X ____ of Y => Idioms w/ Parallel Structure
x instead of y
The same to X ____ ___ Y => Idioms w/ Parallel Structure
the same to x as to y
Range ____ x ____ Y => Idioms w/ Parallel Structure
range from x to y
Both x ____ y => Idioms w/ Parallel Structure
both x and y
Either x ___ y => Idioms w/ Parallel Structure
either x or y
Neither x ____ y => Idioms w/ Parallel Structure
neither x nor y
Mistake x ____ y => Idioms w/ Parallel Structure
mistake x for y
Prefer x ____ y => Idioms w/ Parallel Structure
prefer x to y
X regarded ____ y => Idioms w/ Parallel Structure
x regarded as y
to think of x ___ y => Idioms w/ Parallel Structure
to think of x as y
believe x ____ ____ y => Idioms w/ Parallel Structure
believe x to be y
When you see a verb to be, be sure that the two sides of the verb _______
are parallel in form and meaning..INCORRECT EX: The flower bouquet WAS the husband's giving of love to his wife. CORRECT: The flower bouquet WAS the husband's loving gift to his wife. INCORRECT: The attitudes of that politician always SEEM TO BE attacking the poor. CORRECT: B/c of his intolerant attitude, that politician always SEEMS TO BE attacking the poor.
like vs as
Like compares nouns. As compares clauses / verbs.
Do NOT use like when you mean ____. Instead, use the phrase ____
Do not use like when you mean for example. Use such as.
Comparisons must be _______ parallel and _______ parallel…
Logically parallel and Structurally parallel.
Many => countable / non-countable?
Countable
Much => countable / non-countable?
Non-Countable
As Much….as => countable / non-countable?
Non-Countable
Few/Fewer => countable / non-countable?
Countable
As many…as => countable / non-countable?
Countable
Number of => countable / non-countable?
Countable
Amount of => countable / non-countable?
Non-Countable
The number of => singular / plural?
Singular
A number of => singular / plural?
Plural
When you see the word increase / decrease, look for ________
Redundancy
If you see two independent clauses, beware of _______
No logical connectors between them (run on sentence)
Name 4 things that are ALWAYS wrong on the GMAT:
1.) do it 2.) the numbers of 3.) whether or not 4.) being. Change to: 1.) do so 2.) the number of 3.) whether.