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13 Cards in this Set

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estrogens
progesterones
Because _________ and ___________ tend to suppress the secretion of gonadotropins by the anterior pituitary, plasma levels of LH and FSH show a slight rise at this time, reflecting a withdrawl of the suppressive action.
FSH
FSH
follicles
The rise in ____ stimulates a number of follicles to develop and grow. ____ binds to receptors on granulosa cells and promotes their growth and proliferation, which causes ________ to increase in size.
theca
LH
Under FSH influence, the outer layer of granulosa cells differentiates into ______ cells, which possess __ receptors.
LH
estrogens
__ stimulates the theca cells to secrete androgens, which then travel to the granulosa cells and are converted to ________.
dominant follicle
LH
FSH
LH
FSH
inhibin
atresia
A ________ ________ emerges that secretes estrogens at a high rate, causing plasma levels of these hormones to rise rapidly. These estrogens feed back on the hypothalamus and ant. pit., suppressing ___ and ___ secretion and halting the initial rise in plasma levels of these hormones. ___ remains steady, but ___ levels fall due to the influence of ________, which is secreted at ever-increasing rates by granulosa cells of the growing follicle. This drop in FSH is largly responsible for triggering ______ of nondominant follicles.
Estrogen
works in conjunction w/FSH to promote oogenesis and follicular growth.

promotes changes that prepare the body for menstrual cycle

induce the expression of LH receptors on granulosa cells, which render these cells responsive to LH in prep for the rise in LH that occurs just before the end of follicular phase

induce the expression of progesterone to respond to progesterone during the luteal phase.
late follicular phase
secretory
stimulate
estrogen
LH surge
During ____ _________ phase, rising levels of estrogens trigger a fundamental change in the way these hormones affect _________ activity of the hypothalamus and the ant. pit.: Instead of suppressing the secretion of LH, estrogens _________ the secretion of LH. LH continues to increase which increases more _________, and so on. This is a positive feedback loop of LH that is called ____ ______.
granulosa
late follicular
During mid-follicular phase, estrogens stimulate _________ cells to express LH receptors on their surfaces, making them responsive to LH. As a result, the rising tide of LH that occurs in the ____ _________ phase triggers changes in dominant follicle.
granulosa
estrogen
progesterone
follicular
ovulation
corpus luteum
CHANGES IN DOMINANT FOLLICLE DUE TO RISING LH
1. _________ cells begin to secrete paracrines that stimulate the oocyte to complete meiosis I.
2. _________ secretion by granulosa cells falls, causing plasma estrogen levels to decrease.
3. Granulosa cells begin to secrete ___________, which causes a small rise in plasma levels of this hormone.
4. Granulosa cells begin to secrete enzymes and paracrines that begin to break down the _________ wall. About 19 hours following the peak of the LH surge, the wall ruptures, triggering ___________.
5. Granulosa cells and theca cells begin to differentiate, which eventually transforms the ruptured follicle into a ______ _______.
corpus luteum
dominant follicle
LH
LH surge
progesterone
Early in the luteal phase the ______ ______ is growing but not yet fully functional as an endocrine organ. Plasma estrogen levels continue to fall because the rate of estrogen secretion by the corpus luteum is not yet high enough to compensate for the loss of the estrogen-secreting _________ _________. This fall in estrogens removes the stimulus for ___ secretion, thereby terminating the ___ _______. ___________ secretion by the corpus luteum causes the plasma levels of this hormone to begin rising. The corpus luteum attains full maturity.
Estrogen
progesterone
_______ and ___________ secretion rise causing a corresponding increase in plasma levels that peak at about the middle of the luteal phase.
Estrogen
progesterone
________ works to maintain many of the same effects exerted during the follicular phase, whereas ____________ promotes secretory-phase uterine changes and other changes that generally adapt the body for possible pregnancy.
10th
degenerate
menstruation
luteal phase
After about the ____ day of the luteal phase, the corpus luteum begins to __________ and its secretory activity falls, causing a drop in estrogen and progesterone levels that soon triggers ___________. With the beginning of menstruation, the _______ _______ ends, and the next menstrual cycle begins with a new follicular phase.