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55 Cards in this Set

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What % of body weight is blood?
5%
How many liters of blood do we have?
5L
What is blood?
A specialized connective tissue
What is the ECM component of blood? What are the cells?
ECM = plasma
Cells = RBCs, WBCs, platelets
What do you add when centrifuging to prevent clots?
Heparin
3 components of plasma/%ages:
90% water
10% protein
-some salts/gases
What proteins in plasma?
-Albumin
-Globulins
-Clotting proteins, complement and lipoproteins
What is Serum?
The fluid phase remaining after you've let a clot form and removed it.
In a normal CBC what is a normal
-RBC count?
-WBC count?
RBC = 4-5 x 10^6/uL
WBC = 6-10 x 10^3/uL
Standard size of an RBC:
7.5 um in diameter
Do RBCs have a nucleus or organelles?
NO
How do RBCs get their energy?
Via glycolysis on the anaerobic pathway
What is the thing that makes RBCs pink?
hemoglobin
What is the major integral protein in the RBC membrane?
Band 3
What is Band 3 and what does it do?
Band 3 is an ANION TRANSPORTER that exports Bicarbonate ions from the RBC.
Why do RBCs need to get rid of bicarb?
Because they pick up CO2 at peripheral tissues and carbonic anhydrase converts it into bicarb.
What else does Band 3 do?
Binds Ankyrin to maintain the biconcave shape of the cell.
What is Ankyrin bound to?
The sub-plasma membrane network of Spectrins, Actin, and Band 4.1
Recap; RBC cytoskeletons contain what 3 important filaments?
-Spectrins
-Actin
-Band 4.1
What is attached to the outer RBC membrane?
Glycoproteins that confer blood type
What gas binds hemoglobin irreversibly?
CO
What replaces normal HbA in adults with B-thallasemia?
HbF
What is the abnormality in sickle cell anemia?
Subtitution of Valine for Glutamic Acid at the 6th pos of the beta chain
3 types of granules in neutrophils:
-Azurophilic
-Specific
-Tertiary
What are the azurophilic granules in PMNs?
Lysosomes
What is the major function of PMNs?
killing bacteria
How do neutrophils get to bacteria?
By releasing their specific and tertiary granules to degrade ECM
How do PMNs kill bacteria?
By continuing to release their granules
What do PMNs do after they kill the bug?
They eat it - phagocytosis
What causes pus to form?
The release of hydrolytic enzymes into the phagosome causing a RESPIRATORY BURST
What causes the respiratory burst?
NADPH oxidase
What is the lifespan of a PMN?
A few days
2 types of granules in eosinophils:
-Azurophilic (nonspecific lysosomes)
-Specific
What is the crystalloid center in eosinophilic specific granules?
The internum
What does the internum contain?
Major basic protein
What are the 3 functions of an eosinophil?
1. Kill parasites
2. Phagocytize Ab/Ag complexes
3. Secrete leukotriene
What does a high number of eos indicate?
-Parasitic infection
-Allergies
What is the treatment for asthma and why?
Leukotriene receptor blockers - b/c eosinophils make the stuff which causes edema, constriction, and mucus secretion at the lungs.
What do basophilic specific granules contain?
-Heparin
-Histamine
What cells are basophils very similar to?
Mast cells
How do basophils function?
1. Ag causes PLASMA cell to make IgE; IgE binds mast cell/baso
2. If Ag returns, it immediately binds IgE on baso; baso releases its granule contents.
What is the result of basophil degranulation?
-Vasodilation
-Leakiness of blood vessels
-Bronchoconstriction
What is the lifespan of basophils, in contrast to PMNs and eos?
LONG-LIVED - a few years
What type of immune reaction is caused by basophils?
Anaphylactic shock
What are the agranulocytes?
Monos and lymphos
What are monos?
The largest WBC
What are the functions of monocytes?
-Phagocytosis after they become macrophages
-Antigen presenting cells
What is the lifespan of monos?
A few days in blood
Several months in CT
2 types of lymphos:
B and T
How do lymphos behave in comparison to mast cells?
They have Immunologic memory and only respond to 1 antigen.
What do B lymphs become?
Plasma cells
Platelets come from
Megakaryocytes in the bone marrow
What is the dark region in platelets?
The granulomere
What does the granulomere contain?
Clotting factors and PDGF
What is the Hyalomere?
Microtubules at the peripheral light region.