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27 Cards in this Set

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What was so new about having Henry IV as monarch?
besides for him converting to Catholicism he was practically the first ruler since Louis IX to truly care abt his ppl. He promised a "chicken in every pot" and issued the Edict of Nantes. He appointed Maximilien de Bethune, duke of Sully, as chief minister. And he kept France at peace except for a short and successful war w/Savoy.
how did Henry IV(1589-1610) manage to lower taxes for the peasants?
By introducing the paulette Henry IV (1589-1610)could annually charge the royal officials so that they could maintain their hereditary position. This meant taxes for the peasants could be reduced
what were some of the things Sully did w/taxes that labeled him as an effective administrator?
1)he took the indirect taxes on salt, sales& transportation&combined them into 1. He then rented their collection to financiers
2)altho taxes declined the revenues increased since he revived trade
How was revenue and trade increased or supported by Sully?
3 answers
1)he was 1 of the 1st Fr. officials to consider overseas trade
2)He subsidized companies that traded w/the Indies
3) he started a highway system
After the murder of Henry IV(1598-1610 who had power?
It was really Catherine Marie de' Medici who controlled her son. She later appointed Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642) to the council of ministers. After 1628 he became the first minister of the French crown.
how was he able to use the French monarcy as a symbol of the French state?
1)Cardinal Richelieu(1585-1642)subordinated all groups& institutions to the crown
2)1624: he reshuffles the royal council
3)he destroys castles which represented old feudal independence.
4)crushed aristocratic conspiracies
How did using intendants help Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642)
in his administrative system?
-keep in mind the intendants never managed the affairs of their own district. This was done to prevent bias towards their own home.
1)Fr. was divided up into 32 districts. In each 1 the intendant had a specific job
2)intendants were used to spread the gossip from the districts to paris
3)intendants delivered messages from paris to the districts
4)they were responsible solely to the monarch since he appointed them.
When Henry IV (1598-1610) declared the Edict of Nantes he so to unify France. So why would Louis XIII(1610-1643)hurt Protestant indepedence?
Louis XII (1610-1643) decided to end Protestant military and political independence since he thought it undermined his power. He referred to it as a "state within a state."
What did Louis XIII(1610-1643) do to end the "state within a state"
Louis XIII went after LaRochelle since it was the 4th largest port and major commercial center. It even had relations w/Holland&Eng.
-The city in fell in Oct. 1628 and the influence of aristocrats who supported calvinism was weakened. This aided in unifying Fr.
what war did Richelieu involve france in and why?
-keep in mind that France became a great power after the _________ years war
Richelieu's goal was kill the the Habsburgs or at least reduce their power. So he signed a treaty w/the Lutheran king, Gustavus Adolphus. He promised to help him against the Catholic Habsburgs in the Swedish phase of the Thirty Years War.
Richelieu allowed the French academy to create a dictionary in 1635. How did this help with centralization?
In 1635 a group of philosophers were allowed to write a dictionary to standardize the French language. This helped unify the French since they were able to reduce tensions between the differences in language between the districts.
how was French absolutism limited(in regards to taxes)?
the French monarchs could not tax everyone whenever they wanted. They also shared their revenue w/local powers so they could have the support of the local nobility
At first Cardinal Mazarin (1602-1661) was an effective minister. But what event that lasted from 1649 to 1652 did he cause that threw doubt on his capabilities?
Cardinal Mazarin (1602-1661) caused The Fronde (1649-1652).He tried to increases taxes on the nobility and they revelled. Royalty disliked the stronger monarch and wanted more power. Furthermore, the Spanish defeat at Rocroi convinced many that taxes were unnecessary.
What were the results of the Fronde(1649-1642)?
1) govt. power was weakened since it would have to compromise w/ bureaucrats and social elites
2)the Fr. economy was hurt
3)young Louis XIV was traumatized. As a result he became a firm believer in absolute rule. He thought it was the only way to prevent anarchy. he was determined to be powerful
what is the meaning behind, "l'etat, c'est moi?" In other words, when Louis said, "I am the state" what did he mean?
"I am the state" reflects Louis XIV's belief that he represented the French state. He beleived this becuzz he worked hard to monopolize both the law making process and the armies of France(state is essentially a fusion justice and power).
what bishop(1627-1704)was an advisor to Louis XIV& helped him solidify his power?This bishop promoted "Gallicanism" a movement that wanted keep the Fr.Catholic Church independent from Rome w/o completely severing ties between them
Jacques-Benigne Bossuet (1627-1704) emphasized the 16th c. idea of divine right. he taught that kings enjoyed a special authority on earth derived from God himself. He used Old testament examples of monarchs chosen by god. He also said only God could judge the ruler
So what if the palace of Versailles overawed ppl around the world? how could a building have possibly aided Louis XIV in strengthening his power?
3answers
1) it greatly weakened the aristocracy. how? Louis XIV appointed certain aristocrats to help him w/even minute services. This made them feel powerful.
2)nobles involved in court intrigue but kept from political mischief
3)more than half of his income went to Versailles but it made him more powerful
Is it true that Louis XIV was able to create peace by using his army?
previous to Louis XIV's permanent standing armies these guys fought for themselves. wars were hard to start and difficult to stop. By making armed ppl fight for only himself peace and order was produced in France. He also strengthened Fr. fighting power against others. higher officers became dep. on the govt. who was responsible for supplying their men. hence, they could be subjected to discipline. Soldiers were into uniforms, taught to march and were also made susceptible to discipline and control. Also these armies terrorized the ppl less& could be used to suppress rebellions.
why would Louis XIV use men were haad just recently become apart of the nobility or who had just attained upper class status?
*who is a good example of this?*
Louis XIV preferred upper-class newbies since they couldnt aspire to their own political independence. One of his fav. newbies was his minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert. He was the son of a draper
How was religion used to enhance absolutist power?
*what did Louis XIV revoke in 1685 that led to him losing many loyal and skilled subjects*
1)On Oct. 25, 1685 Louis XIV revoked the edict of Nantes. The only right Protestants had was to convert to Catholicism. Those who did not convert or leave the country were screwed. he gained more respect for doing what Catholics thought God wanted (rid Fr. of heresy).he was also respected since it promoted rel. unity and rel. liberty wasnt popular.
how was the church a power to be reckoned with?
4 answers
1)the church was a state w/in a state
2)it was tax free& independent from Rome
3)It had power over life i.e. wills and marriage
4)was supported by Louis XIV
what were some influences of Louis XIV's government and style?
1)Versailles&his govt. were admired thru out Er. & every1 tried to copy him
2)Fr. patronage to arists aided international prestige
3)artists favored classicism i.e. Poussin who painted w/almost geometric precision. This went hand in hand with Louis XIV's love of order, harmony&hierarchy
4)salons altho disliked by govt. resulted in the spread of French ideas to the rest of Uer. Parisian-style salons appeared in other Eur. cities along w/Fr. fashion, Fr. manners and Fr. language during the 17th c.
What was Colbert's (1819-1683) commercial code?
1)improving communication thru internal improvements
2)worked w/guilds so foreigners would trust the quality of their goods
3)founded colonies
4)biult up the navy
what did Colbert do to prevent foreign products from competing w/French ones?
Colbert pushed for high foreign tariffs to keep their products from competiting w/Fr. ones
How did he help make Canada apart of the Fr. empire? what does this show he supported?
he sent 4000 peasants to Quebec in 1608. This shows he supported mercantilism. This meant that France should obtain its raw materials from colonies and sell more than it buys
in what ways was Colbert an ineffective minister?
Colbert had really crappy goals that made his goals nearly impossible. Also, the peasants were heavily taxed and agriculture depended on them(agriculture was the principle industry of France) so when they emigrated to escape taxes the agriculture and royal income+state resources were hurt.
Who are two main artists that were used to glorify the king thru their art
*both exemplify classicism
Nicholas Poussin: French classicist painter who thought the aim of painting was to present noble actions in a logical and orderly way.
-Molier was absolutely loved by Louis XIV. he was a playwright.