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8 Cards in this Set

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What are the two main categories of neurodegenerative conditions?
Dementia and Movement disorders
What is the model of neurodegenerative diseases?
Normal proteins are misfolded...results in cell death/chaperone correction/tangles (BAD)/senile plaques (BAD)...

Generalized, diffuse cerebral atrophy
What is the model of Alzheimers disease?
INTRAcellular Neurofibrillary tangles (made up of aggregated abnormal Tau protein - paired helical filament) and EXTRAcellular senile plaques (MAJOR LESION OF AD - made of Amyloid B, abnormally cleaved from APP).

NOTED ATROPHY OF HIPPOCAMPUS, ENTORHINAL CORTEX, MEDIAL TEMPORAL CORTEX
What is Tau?
Tau is a microtubule associated protein that attaches to and stabilizes microtubules. It is hyperphosphorylated and can result in tangle formation.
What are senile plauqes? Are they all bad?
Diffuse plaques (less condensed) seen in virtually ALL aging patients. Bad plaques are MORE CONDENSED (neuritic and mature type). SENILE PLAQUES MADE UP OF STRAIGHT FILAMENTS MADE UP OF A-Beta peptide.
How do you make postmortem AD diagnosis?
Must have premortem diagnosis of dementia. Imaging of brain to determine extent of NFT and senile plaques.
Type of inclusions in Parkinsons?
Lewy bodies. Small black inclusions made up of alpha-synuclein. Pale halo, eosinophilic core. Increased expression of alpha-synuclein can lead to disease onset. LEWY BODIES FOUND IN OTHER DISEASES, NOT JUST PARKINSONS
Type of inclusions in ALS? Other ALS info?
Ubiquitin/TDP-43 positive inclusions in MOTOR NEURONS

Degeneration of corticospinal tracts...demyelination of white matter. CORTICOSPINAL DEGENERATION AND MOTOR NEURON CELL BODY LOSS (ANTERIOR ROOT ATROPHY)